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Full text of "The churches and churchyards of Berwickshire"

THE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS OF 
BERWICKSHIRE. 



PRINTED BY RUTHERFURD & CRAIO. 



THE 



CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS 



OF 



BERWICKSHIRE, 



BY 

JAMES 11 B S N, 

AUTHOR OF "THE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS OK ROXBURGHSHIRE, 
"BORDER BATTLES," ETC. 



KELSO 

J. & J. H. R UTHEK* u K D, -2), SQUARE. 
1393. 



PREFACE. 



TWENTY-FIVE years hence a very considerable 
proportion of the inscriptions and epitaphs recorded 
in the following pages will have entirely disap 
peared. This is due, not altogether in some 
cases, indeed, not at all to neglect or wilful 
spoliation. The laws of disintegration operate 
with merciless severity upon the sacred relics and 
the quaint and curious words engraved on their 
surface. Except where the stone is very durable, 
epitaphs, after the lapse of a couple of centuries, 
become defaced and unintelligible. 

The memory of our forefathers, however remote 
the period in which they lived, however simple 
their lives and humble their origin, is worthy of 
being perpetuated. Apart altogether from the 
question of genealogy and pedigree, there is an 
element of deep pathos in all that concerns our 
departed kindred, and the simple words which 
record their virtues (not always omitting their 
vices). Time s stern corroding touch deals hardly 
with our most cherished and sacred memorials, 
whether in the shape of tombstones or church 
buildings. Sixteenth, and even seventeenth, 



vi PREFACE. 

century stones are rapidly crumbling to decay 
their inscriptions, in some cases, only partially 
decipherable ; in others so weathered as to be 
utterly unintelligible. It is with a view to rescue 
these from the oblivion which inevitably awaits 
them that the present work has been undertaken. 

The inscriptions, with few exceptions, have been 
carefully copied from the stones by the author 
himself. This part of the work is the result of 
patient and laborious effort, attended, in some 
cases, with only partial success words here and 
there being illegible. 

For the general description of pre-Reforrnation 
fabrics, and especially their architectural features, 
the author is indebted to Mr. John Ferguson, Duns. 
This is given almost verbatim et literatim from his 
" Pre-Reformation Churches of Berwickshire " a 
series of valuable papers which appeared in the 
Berwickshire Naturalists Club Proceedings for 1890. 
To the secretary of the Club, Dr. Hardy, thanks are 
also due for kind permission to use these and other 
papers, the property of the Club. 

DEANBKAE, HAWICK, 

20th June, 1896. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

ABBEY ST. BATHANS 1 

AYTON . 12 

BUNKLE - . 17 

PRESTON . 22 

CHANNELKIRK . 2? 

CHIRNSIDE . 33 

COCKBURNSPATH - . - 40 

ST. HELEN S (ALDCAMBUS) - - - 44 

COLDINOHAM . . 49 

ST. EBBA S - . 49 

RENTOX . . (34 

HOUND\VOOI> . . (;4 

COLDSTREAM . . - 66 

LENNEL . C9 

CRANSHAWS . ^^ 

DUNS gQ 

EARLSTON . gr, 

ECCLES 90 

BlRGHAM 95 

LEITHOLM 9(j 

MERSINGTON . 9(j 

EDROM . 93 

EYEMOUTH 1Q5 

TOGO . 110 

FOULDEN - - 115 

GORDON . ^20 

HUNTLEYWOO1> . |21 

SPOTTISWOOD . 121 

HUME 12 3 

GREENLAW . ^26 

LAMBDEN - . 128 

HAL Y BURTON . 128 

ROWESTON - 128 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page. 

BUTTON 131 

FISHWICK 135 

LADYKIKK 139 

UPSETLINGTON 146 

HORNDEAN - 147 

LANGTON - 151 

LAUDER - 157 

KEDSLIE 158 

ST. LEONARD S 158 

LEGERWOOO 163 

LONGFORMACUS - 171 

ELLEM - 173 

MERTOUN - 175 

DRYBURGH - - 177 

MORDINGTON - 187 

LAMBERTON - - 190 

NENTHORN - 194 

LITTLE NEWTON - 197 

POLWARTH 200 

SWINTON - 208 

SlMPRIN - 2 11 

WESTRUTHER - 215 

BASSENDEAN - 216 

SPOTTISWOOD . 219 

WEDDERLEY - 219 

WHITSOME . 222 

HILTON - - 224 



THE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS 
OF BERWICKSHIRE. 



Bbbe? St. Batbans. 

THIS is one of the most ancient ecclesiastical 
establishments in Scotland, although, unfortunately, 
comparatively little is known concerning its history. 
That a place of such importance should have been 
allowed to almost entirely disappear, and all but 
pass from the ken of modern historians, is a proof of 
how much rather, indeed, how amazingly little 
interest centres around ecclesiological institutions 
which had their birth and flourished in ages more 
remote than the period of transition from Saxon 
to Norman dominion. An antiquity which stretches 
remotely back, and even invades the teens of 
centuries, deserves a better fate than to sink into 
unmerited oblivion, and fade from our mental vision 
as if it were but a mere fable rather than the strong 
and stable rock on which is reared the visible 
Church of God on earth. 

Obscure and fragmentary as is the history of 
Abbey St. Bathans. we have evidence of a kind 

A 



2 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

which would seem to point to the conclusion that 
the first religious establishment here was founded 
as early as the seventh century. 

Like all such fabrics of that early period, it was 
rude, and entirely void of anything like architec 
tural beauty. Indeed, the earliest structure here, 
it is believed, was simply a hut composed of wood 
and turf. It stood at a distance of about a quarter 
of a mile from the church and ancient priory of 
Abbey St. Bathans, and the field which contains 
the site has always been known as " The Chapel 
Field."* 

No person now alive recollects the ruins. From 
time to time, however, in ploughing the field, 
stones have been turned up which apparently had 
formed part of the building, and thus the site of 
the chapel was pretty nearly ascertained, but it was 
only in the course of draining the field this summer 
(1870) that the foundations were discovered, and 
they have been fully traced, and are now exposed. 
The building is rectangular, 46 feet. 6 inches in 
length externally, and 38 feet internally, 21 feet in 
breadth externally, and 15 feet 6 inches internally. 



* It is thus spoken of in the Old Statistical Account (Sir John 
Sinclair s) : " About a quarter of a mile from the nunnery, on 
the same side of the water, lie the foundations of a small chapel 
and yard holding that name, but there are no marks of people 
having buried in it." Some time after this it seems to have 
fallen a prey to the vandalism of the period, and the fatal influ 
ence of the "improving laird," for in the New Statistical 
Account, written about fifty years later, it is stated that " these 
foundations have now been removed, on account of the obstruc 
tion they presented to the operations of agriculture, but the 
field that contained them is still called the Chapel Field." 



ABBEY ST. BATHANS. 



The north wall is 3 feet thick, the east and south 
walls are about 3 feet 6 inches thick, and the west 
wall is 5 feet thick. The door has probably been 
in the middle of the west end, but partly from the 
fact that nothing except the foundations are re 
maining, and partly from a drain having been cut 
through it before the nature of the building was 
known, no trace of a door can now be found. In 
the southern half of this west end wall there is 
apparently a passage 1 foot 8 inches broad and 
about 6 feet long, entering probably from the 
doorway ; but it is difficult to see what could be 
the object of it, unless it might lead to the stair of 
a belfry. On the south side, near the west end, is 
a window 3 feet 7 inches wide externally, the sides 
of it being formed of freestone, well, but roughly, 
dressed ; only two courses of these stones and the 
window-sill remain. The sill must have been on 
the level of the ground. Lime has been used in 
the erection of this window, but it seems doubtful 
if the other parts of the structure have been so 
built. The east end has been contracted by a 
2-feet wall in each corner, so as to form a small 
chancel 10 feet wide by 4 feet 6 inches deep. In 
front of this chancel is a flat gravestone 5 feet 
10 inches long, 1 foot 8 inches broad at the head, 
or west end, arid 1 foot 5 inches at the foot, or 
east end. A bevel of about 1 J inches has been cut 
on the edges. This gravestone differs in shape 
from most, if not all, others in this immediate 
district, which are always rectangular. There is 
no inscription or sculpture on it. It is well dressed, 
but the tool-marks on it are apparently those of a 



4 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

pick, not of a flat chisel. In the building were 
found a few dressed stones for lintels, and a good 
many pieces of what probably has been a font 
about 2 feet in diameter. Some pieces of oak and 
large iron nails have also been found; the wood is 
much decayed on the outside, but the heart of it is 
sound and hard.* 

In this parish in the year 1184, or between that 
and 1200, there was founded a priory or nunnery. 
It was dedicated to St. Mary, and founded by Ada, 
the liberal daughter of William the Lion, wife of 
Patrick Earl of Dunbar, to form a convent of 
Cistercian nuns. Its founders made adequate en 
dowments of lands and revenues, besides which it 
received many donations from other benefactors. 
This nunnery, however, never reached a degree of 
opulence equal to those of Coldstream or Eccles, yet 
to be noticed. The nuns of Abbey St. Bathans 
appear to have had a grange at some distance from 
this convent, and, in the thirteenth century, they 
made an agreement with the prior of Coldingham 
to pay him twelve pennies, or a pound of pepper, 
yearly for their tithes of hay from a meadow at 
Bylie. 

Ada, the prioress, and the nuns of St. Bathans 
swore fealty to Edward I. on 24th August, 1296, 
and were thereafter restored by him to their lands 
and rights. 

After the fatal battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 the 
prioress and her nuns submitted to Edward, and 



* Mr. John Turnbull, Abbey St. Bathans. Hist. Rer. Nat. 
Club, 1870. 



ABBEY ST. BATHANS. 5 

obtained from him, in 1334, a protection for them 
selves, their house, and their revenues.* 

St. Bathans priory is understood to have been 
originally a cell of South Berwick, but it appears 
at no long time after its foundation to have become 
independent. Remains of the conventual buildings 
were visible about the close of last century. The 
last vestiges disappeared about half a century ago.f 

There is built into the front wall of the present 
mansion house of Abbey St. Bathaus a stone bear 
ing the following inscription : 

DVRVM PATIENTIA FRANCO 1694. 

This can hardly have any, or, at all events, but a 
very remote, connection with the priory 4 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 

t Mr. Ferguson.//^. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. Writing in 
1860, Mr. J. C. Langlands says : " There is scarcely anything 
left at Abbey St. Bathans of the ancient nunnery. Some years 
ago part of the doorway was to be seen within the burial ground, 
but all vestiges of it have been removed. A small window still 
remains in the eastern gable of the kirk. It has been partly 
walled up to hold a common window frame, above which two 
circular headings may be seen : these have rested in the centre 
on a shaft by which the window has been divided. Above 
them, and between them, there has been a circular opening, 
which is now made use of as a passage for the flue of the stove 
inside the kirk. The wall is very thick and much splayed, 
evidently showing that it has been erected outside of the wall." 

$ In the Bemvick Journal of June 27th, 1895, Mr. R. H. 
Henderson, Chirnside, writes : " To the south and east of the 
church of St. Bathans lay the gardens of the Priory ; this spot 
has hence been called the Precinct Yards ; around the whole was 
a walk of three tiers of stones, and on the east side of these 
gardens was another walk of considerable breadth, bearing the 
name of the Bishop s Loan. Why it had received this name 
cannot now be ascertained. It may be conjectured, however, 



H BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The present church of Abbey St. Bathans occu 
pies a delightfully secluded position close to the 
right bank of the Whitadder. This was originally 
the church of the Priory, and was used after the 
Reformation. Since then the building has been so 
much altered and curtailed that very little of the 
original fabric remains. What is now the east wall 
24 feet wide by 4 feet thick, and evidently for 
the most part ancient is pierced about the middle 
of the elevation by a round-headed, widely counter- 
splayed window 8 feet by 2 feet wide which 
retains its ancient plate tracery in the head, form 
ing a trefoiled termination to each of the two lights 
into which it has been divided, and displaying a 
quatre-foiled circle in the space above. The divid 
ing monial is a restoration. The tracery is more 
worn and decayed on the internal side, and the 
splay of the outer sill of the window is much 
deeper than that of the inner one. There is also 
an intake on the wall above the window externally. 
These are somewhat puzzling features, and would 
seem to show that the modern church has been 
built to the west of the original edifice, thus con 
verting its west wall into the eastern gable of the 
new structure. This view is borne out by the fact 

that as the Priory belonged at one time to David Lindsay, son to 
the Archbishop of Glasgow if this dignitary ever resided here 
the Bishop s Loan may have been his favourite place of resort 
for walking, and there is some reason for believing that this 
family did at one time reside here. A stone lintel is preserved 
bearing the inscription Patientia durum frango, and as the chief 
of the family of Lindsay took the motto Endure fert, and two 
of the cadets Patientia Vincit, it is not improbable that this 
inscription may have been the motto of Prior David Lindsay." 



ABBEY ST. BATHANS. 7 

that, close to the northern extremity of the same 
wall (on what is now its external side), there are 
stones projecting from its face as if it had extended 
farther to the east. The lower portion of the north 
wall of the church is also ancient, and near the west 
end may be seen traces of a blocked semi-circular- 
headed doorway. This, according to the writer of 
the New Statistical Account, communicated with 
the domestic buildings which stood to the north of 
the church, between it and the river Wliitadder.* 

The church has a handsome tower, and the in 
terior, though small, is comfortable, and adorned 
by several windows of beautifully stained glass. 
The pulpit occupies the south-east corner, and near 
it, within a modem recess in the east wall, is a 
recumbent, full-length effigy of what appears to be 
a prioress. This interesting, and to all appearance 
ancient, monument had been built into the wall of 
the church, and during some alterations which 
took place a number of years ago it was removed 
and placed in its present position. Built into the 
wall of the church porch is a large stone with the 
following inscription : 

" Hire . lyes . MR . George . 

Home . Minister . of . the . 

Gospel . at . Abay . St . 

Bathens . who . departed 

. this . life . the . 22 . of . 

September . 1705 . years . his . 

age. . . . 
" Hire . lyes . lean . Hamilton 

spows . to . the . seid . Mr 

George . Home . who . de- 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



8 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

parted . this . life . the . 22 
of . December . 1719 . and 
Mortifyed . a . 1000 . Marks 
for . maintaining . a . School 
Master . in . this . place 
her . age . 64 . years. 
" Here . lyes . Ke tar hie . Crucks 
spous . to . Ninion . Home . sone 
to . the . said . Mr . George . Home." 

A short distance to the east of the church is the 
Holy Well, or St. Bathan s Well, which bears the 
following beautiful inscription : 

" DEUS ADJUTORIUM 
MEUM INTENDE."* 

A path near this well is called " The Pilgrims 
Path." 

The burial ground which surrounds the church 
contains a few stones dating back to the seven 
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, 
though nothing very remarkable in the way of 
inscriptions. On a small stone are these words 

" Here lyes Elisabeth Smitton daughter of Walter Smitton 
who departed this life in the 1 day of Agust 1731." 

A medium-sized stone, though comparatively 



* According to the superstition of ancient times, this spring 
had the power of healing diseases, and its waters, as is still the 
belief of the neighbourhood, neither fog nor freeze : they even 
prevent a mill-lade into which they flow from being locked up in 
winter with ice. A dramatic writer, little known to fame, takes 
a simile from this circumstance, making one of his characters 
praise the wit of another as pure, and never failing, by saying 
" The wit is like St. Bathan s crystal well, 
That never fogs or freezes, always pure." 
Mr R. H. Henderson. Berwick Journal, 27th June, 1895. 



ABBEY ST. BATHANS. 9 

modern, is curiously inscribed in very rude lettering 
thus 

" Here lyes Thomas Miller who died in Desnibr 6th 1778 
aged 77 years as also hise spoues Isbel Trotter who died in 
dsmbr 24th 1763 aged 85 years as also there sone who died jenry 
24 1762 aged 19 years." 

The inscription on a very plain stone, which is 
the oldest decipherable, reads thus: 

" Here lyes Patrick Johnston uho departed this life the 1 day 
of May 1698 and of his age 45. 

" Here lyes lean Moffat spous to Patrick Johnston uho 
departed this life the 11 of April 1723 and of her age 76. 

"Here lyes Margret Coun spous to lames Johnston uho 
departed this life the 27 cf September 1723 & of her age 42." 

The following appears on an exceedingly small 
stone : 

" Tod who departed this life the 2 daie of Aprill 1718 and of 
her age 72 years." 

About a mile west of the priory, at Strafontain 
(Trefontanis), there was another nunnery and 
chapel, which was also a cell of Berwick. It was 
founded by David I. in 1118. It seems to have 
been suppressed in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, and in 1450 the lands were given to the 
Collegiate Church of Dunglass, to which the church, 
with a hospital attached to it, was annexed as a 
prebend.* 

In 1437 there was a " Donatio ecclesite, sen 
hospitalis de Lamyria," by John, abbot of Alnwick, 
to John de Coldstream and the other monks of 
Dryburgh, which hospital seems to have been 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



10 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

delivered to their charge in the year 1436 by 
Henry, the bishop of St. Andrews.* 

Alas ! alas ! church, nunnery, hospital, and burial 
ground have all disappeared. Not a vestige now 
remains to remind us of former greatness. Portions 
of the church and burial ground were visible at the 
end of last century, but were totally removed some 
years later. 

Something of the state of the separate churches 
in this parish may be gathered from the following 
report : " The estait of the Kirkis of St. Bothanes 
and Strafontanes with the value of the teyndis 
gewing vpe be James Stevinsone and Alexander 
Robesone the 18 of Junii 1627. Communicants 
ane hundreth and fortie. The farthest pairt from 
the kirk is not two full myles. 

"The kirkis since the reformatioun hes ever 
bene conjoynit and vnder ane ministrie. 

" The kirkis are not of one qualitie not haveing 
one patrone. 

" The Kirk of St. Bothanes within the precinct 
of the monasterie of old for nunes hes the kingis 
Maiestie for patron. The Kirk of Strafontanes the 
Erie Hume it being a peiidicle of the colledge Kirk 
of Dunglas."f 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Abbey St. Bathans since 1591 : 

Matthew Liddell 1591 to 1608. 
George Reidpath, M. A. 1627 to 1628. 



* Sir Lewis Stewart s MS. Col. No. 2. 

t Reports of the state of certain parishes in Scotland, from 
the originals, preserved in General Register House. 



ABBEY ST. BATHANS. 11 

Thomas Suyntoune, M.A. 1628 to 1649. 

George Pollok, M. A. 1650 to 1663. 

James Cokburne, M. A. 1664 to 1674. 

James Dunbar, M.A. 1675 to 1681. 

Robert Bowmaker, M. A. 1682 to 1697. 

George Hume, M. A. 1699 to 1705. 

George Hume, of Abbey, M. A. 1707 to 1718. 

James Hall, M. A. 1719 to 1754.* 

Alexander Hume 1755 to 1758. 

Adam Murray 1759 to 1774. 

John Sked 1774 to 1810. 

Alexander Anderson 1813 to 1822. 

John Wallace 1823 to 1843. t 

Thomas Davidson 1843 to 1873. 

Peter Christie (present incumbent) 1873. 



* Hall was suspended for having a penny wedding in his 
house, which gave great scandal to the neighbourhood ! Scott s 
Fasti Lcdesice Scoticance. 

t Wallace, on adhering to the Protest, joining in the Free 
Secession, and signing the Deed of Demission, was declared no 
longer a minister of this church, 24th May, 1843. He was the 
last member of the Assembly who left the venerable house on 
that memorable departure. Scott s Fasti Ecclesice Scoticance. 



12 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



a $ t o n, 

THE church of Ayton is supposed to date back 
to a period not later than the close more pro 
bably the middle of the twelfth century. It was 
granted by the Scottish Edgar to St. Cuthbert s 
monks, and thus became the property of the priory 
of Coldingham, of which it was a subordinate cell, 
and remained such till the Reformation. It was 
dedicated to St. Dionysius. In the year 1380 the 
church was the scene of an important historical 
event. John of Gaunt, in this year, met the 
Scottish commissioners whom King Robert II. had 
appointed to arrange for a renewal of the truce 
between the two countries ; and a similar meeting 
was held in the church in 1384. Then on 30th 
September, 1497, a truce was entered into between 
England and Scotland to last for seven years. It 
was signed in the church of Ayton, on behalf of 
King James, by Andrew Eorman, &c., &c. 

Amongst the earlier chaplains he was probably 
the first connected with this church was Robertus 
Parsona Capellae de Ayton, the date of whose tenure 
of office is somewhat indefinite, but was between 
the years 1166 and 1232. 

The original building stood in the churchyard, 
and was built in the form of a St. John s cross. 
The foundations of that part of its walls which 
constituted the nave, as also the eastern wall of 
the chancel and a considerable portion of the south 
transept, constructed of square hewn sandstone, 



AYTON. 18 

remained undisturbed, and formed part of the 
successor of the original church. The whole fabric 
is now roofless, but forms a picturesque ruin. 

The old belfry stands almost complete, clothed 
with a thick mantle of ivy, while the side walls are 
in some parts fairly entire. The south transept of 
this original church has been used for many years 
as the private burial vault of the Fordyce family, 
formerly proprietors of Ayton Castle. The window 
in this part is worthy of special notice. It affords 
an excellent specimen of the intermixture between 
the Saxon and Norman styles of architecture, as 
seen from its circular arch and massive mullions 
a style which was introduced into Scotland during 
the twelfth century. Grave doubts, however, are 
entertained as to the antiquity of this part of tin- 
old building. After a very careful and minute 
examination of the place a few years ago, Mr. 
Ferguson writes: "If the adjunct called the south 
transept has not been a late addition to the church, 
the window has been a Lite insertion in the tran 
sept. It is round headed, no doubt, but is of much 
larger dimensions than the ordinary type of Norman 
window, and is divided into three lights by mullions 
crossed by a transom bar. The tracery is still entire, 
and is of the most ungainly description, looking 
more like the debased work of the seventeenth 
or eighteenth centuries than that of any of the 
mediaeval styles. Of course, the fact of its being 
bar tracery conclusively shows that it is long 
posterior to the Norman period; and it is impossible 
to avoid the suspicion that it may have been one of 
the improvements referred to in the Old Statistical 



14 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Account as having been made upon the church not 
many years before it was written. The east wall 
of the church was nearly entire about half-a- 
century ago, but has since been removed, so that 
the dimensions of that portion of the building 
cannot now be ascertained. The nave has been 
about 75 feet long by 20 feet 6 inches wide, but 
none of its original features are now visible. The 
belfry tower on the north side was a late addition.* 

Near the village of Ay ton is a holy well, still in 
use, which was dedicated to St. Ebba. 

One communion cup of considerable antiquity is 
engraved "This cup originally given by Magdallan 
Rule of Peelwalls to the Church of Ayton in 1677. 
Renewed and enlarged in 1780." Another cup is 
engraved" The Parish Church of Ayton 1780." 

The present church is a handsome structure, and 
was erected in 1865, in the Gothic style of archi 
tecture. It is cruciform one transept complete, 
apse, and cloister. It contains a handsome rose 
window and an elegant spire 130 feet high. 

The churchyard is large, arid contains many 
tombstones of varying form and size, some of which 
date 250 years back. An exceedingly small stone 
bears date only 1648. 

A large horizontal stone has the following inte 
resting inscription : 

" Patrick Home of Bastilridge deceast in the year 1657 
aged 48. 

" Heir lyes William Home of Bastelrige his son who deceast 
Agust 3 1693 aged 54." 

* Hint. Ber. Not. Club, 1890. 



AYTON. 15 

A large stone bears the following beautiful 
lines : 

" Though distant climes divide us here below, 

Though far apart we moulder into dust, 
Hope says, and gently dries the tears of woe, 
You all shall meet to mingle with the blest." 

A neat little stone is inscribed thus, and is inte 
resting on account of the strange and incongruous 
mixture of small and capital letters : 
" HErE LIES ThE BOdY 

OF GOrGE BrUN WhO 

DelD ThIS LIFE JUIY 

ANE 1729 ANd OF 

MarGrET hOG HIS 

SPOUS WhO DYd NEVMBrE 

8 1725." 

The following words appear on a very small 
stone : 

"Here lyes the corps of Gelbert Hoog who departed this life 
decmber the 28 day 1736 his age 80 years. Illen Allanshaw who 
died Decmber 20 day 1724. 

A large aisle surrounded by a strong wall con 
tains the tombs of the ancestors of the Hoods of 
Staiiirig. In the interior was inserted a tablet 
with the following : 

OLIM SIC ERAT. 

" This aisle was built and the tombstones repaired by John 
Hood of Stoneridge. A. D. 1830. 

The inscription on one of the stones repaired runs 
thus : 

" Here lyeth the corpse of Thomas Hwde born 1648 Departed 
this lyffe 1697 

" His father James Hwde sold ye land of Hoodsland in 
Ay mouth parish which belonged to his predecessor." 

There is also the large family burying ground of 



16 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

the Inneses of Ayton Castle (the place has been 
sold by them quite recently). It is enclosed by a 
high and massive iron railing. 

The family of Fordyce, formerly proprietors of 
Ayton Castle, have also a private burying vault 
here formed of the interior of the south transept of 
the original church. A marble tablet in the interior 
is thus inscribed : 

"In memory of the Right Hon ble John Fordyce, M.P., 
of Ayton. Many years Receiver-General for Scotland and 
Commissioner of Woods and Forests under the Right Hon ble 
William Pitt. He died in London, 1st July, 1809. 

"Also of Katherine, his wife, daughter of Sir William 
Maxwell, 3d Bart, of Monreith. She died 6th March, 1815." 

The names of the ministers that have been in 
Ayton since 1585 are as follows : 

Robert Hislop 1585 to 1586. 

John Home 1586 to 1601. 

William Hog 1601 to 1616. 

Alexander Home 1617 to 1626. 

George Home, M.A. 1627 to 1650. 

Alexander Gibsone, M.A. 1652 to 1652 (a few months). 

William Hume 1653 to 1664. 

John Bethune, M. A. 1667 to 1689. 

George Hume, M. A. 1694 to 1706. 

Thomas Anderson 1712 to 1751. 

Patrick Hepburn 1753 to 1772. 

George Home 1773 to 1816. 

Abraham Home (assistant and successor) 1799 to 1814. 

George Tough (assistant and successor) 1814 to 1842. 

Daniel Cameron 1843 to 1882. 

J. J. Marshall Lang Aiken, B.D. (present incumbent) 1882. 

There is a United Presbyterian Church at Ayton, 
originally built in 1776 and rebuilt in 1872. It is 
an elegant Gothic structure, with tall spire. The 
present minister is William Wilson, settled in 1869. 



BUNKLE AND PRESTON. 17 



unftle anfc preston. 

THESE were separate parishes up till the latter 
end of the sixteenth century, when they were 
united, and formed into one parish under the name 
of Bunkle. 

The original church of Bunkle is ancient, as, in 
connection with the parish boundaries, David I. 
had to settle a controversy about the proper limits 
of " Bonkillscire and Coldingharnscire" (scire is here 
used in the sense of parish), and William the Lion 
was called on to settle the same boundaries by 
pertinacious parties.* 

Of the original structure nothing remains but the 
small semicircular Norman apse, which stands a 
short distance to the south-east of the modern 
building. This is probably one of the earliest 
examples of medieval ecclesiastical architecture in 
Scotland. Mr. Muir, no mean authority, believes 
that it may date from even before the beginning 
of the 12th century ; and the excessive plainness 
I had almost said rudeness of such features as 
it presents certainly indicates great antiquity. 
The arch which opened to the chancel is totally 
devoid of ornament, being a plain semi-circular- 
headed, square-edged specimen, resting on slightly 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 

B 



18 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

projecting imposts (7 feet 4 inches above the level 
of the ground), square on the upper edge, but 
chamfered on the lower. The north-west corner 
has evidently been repaired at a very recent date, 
and two stones built into it, which were doubtless 
taken from some other part of the ancient church, are 
marked with the zig-zag or chevron ornament in 
its earliest and simplest form. On several stones 
in the facing of the west wall, and on some of the 
voussoirs of the arch, a variety of masons marks are 
observable some of them similar to those on the 
earliest Norman portions of Jedburgh Abbey. The 
walls of the apse are 3 feet in thickness. The roof 
is a plain rounded vault internally, and is covered 
on the outside with stone slabs. A slightly pro 
jecting cornice, with a hollow chamfer below, runs 
along the top of the wall; and there is a narrow^ 
basement course, with a plain slope above, close to 
the ground. The only window is a small round- 
headed one, which looks to the south-east, slightly 
bevelled round the outer edge, and very widely 
splayed within. The orientation is nearly due 
east.* 

Only very recently there have been discovered 
traces of what has evidently been another window 
similar to the round-headed one already described. 
It is at the opposite side of the structure, and looks 
towards the north-east. A rectangular piscina 
niche, a little below and to the right of this 
window, which was built up and concealed from 
view in 1890, has been recently revealed by the 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist, Her. Nat. dub. 



BUNKLE AND PRESTON. 19 

decayed state of the plaster, and is now exposed in 
its original state.* 

* In this apse lie the remains of the murdered Mrs. Margaret 
Home. 

" NORMAN BOSS. 

" The lady s gane, and Norman s ta en, 

Norman wi the bloody hand ; 
Now he will hae to pay the kain 

For being at the deil s command. 
" Norman Ross, wi pykit pow, 

Three corbies at his e en ; 
Girnin in the gallows tow, 

Sic a sight was never seen." 

Norman Ross, to whom the above rhyme refers, was a confi 
dential servant to Mrs. Margaret Home, Lady Billy, widow of 
Mr. Ninion Home of Billy, in the parish of Buncle, in the year 
1751. Lady Billy then resided at Linthill, an old mansion near 
Eyemouth ; and on Monday evening, the 12th of August, Norman 
Ross concealed himself in his mistress s room while she was out 
enjoying a walk ; and after she had come in, and gone to bed, 
Norman, supposing her asleep, came forth from his hiding place, 
and attempting to take her pocket with her keys from under her 
pillow, in order to get at her money, the lady awoke, and 
Norman immediately ran to the drawers which stood in the 
room, and, seizing a case knife lying on the top of them, there 
with cut her throat across ; and as she resisted by grasping at 
his hair, and making other efforts for life, she was sadly mangled 
with the knife, in her hands, arms, and other parts of her body. 
The noise occasioned by the struggle having awoke the servants 
below, one of them ran directly upstairs, and saw the ruffian 
returning out of the lady s room, and immediately after he went 
out at a window. He was taken next day in a field of corn near 
the house, being unable to escape to any distance in consequence, 
it is said, of having broken a leg in his descent from the window, 
and was carried by a party of military to the gaol at Greenlaw. 
The unfortunate lady died on Friday the 16th of August, 1751, 
the fourth day after she received her wounds. Norman Ross 
was tried for the murder before the High Court of Justiciary at 
Edinburgh, on the llth November following, and was found 
guilty of the crime libelled. He was sentenced to be executed 



20 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The church was repaired about 1718, and a 
century later the original building was almost 
completely demolished only the Norman apse left, 
as already observed and the materials used for the 
erection of the present church in 1820. 

From the following extract we get some idea of 
the ecclesiastical condition of the parish in the early 
part of the seventeenth century : 

" The valuation of the landes and teindis and kirk 
landis within the parische and barony of Bonckell. 

" Imprimis, thair be fyfe hundredth communicantis 
in the parochin. Item, the extent of the parochin 
is three myllis in lenth and three in bread ; the kirk 
standis in the midis of the parochin. The f urdest 
house in the parochin is not twa myllis ffrom the 
kirk. The kirk of Prestone is vnyted to the kirk 
off Bonckell. It was vnyted be the direction off the 
last Parliament holdin at Edinburch be our gracious 
soverane off worthie memori King James [the Sext], 
and be the plate ordeaned to be haldin ffor the 
provisione off kirkis vnprovydid, as Bonckell was at 
that tyme. And the furthest house off the parochin 
of Prestone is nocht twa myllis ffrom the kirk of 
Bonckell : The Resones off the vnion. Both the 
parochins wer on lordis land or Barronj ; the kirk 
of Bonckell in the midis off the Barronj. Both the 
parochines but fyf hundreth communicantes : the 
case off thes kirks befoir the vnion was. In the 

at the Gallowlee, between Edinburgh and Leith. The narrative 
states that the mourners had proceeded for a considerable dis 
tance before any one discovered that they had left Linthill 
without the corpse of the murdered lady ! The Popular Rhymes, 
Sayings, and Proverbs of the County of Berwick, by George 
Henderson, surgeon, Chirnside. 



BUNKLE AND PRESTON. 21 

paroch of Prestone twa hundreth commmiicautes. 
The stipend of the Minister of Bouckell then thre- 
scoir pundis money, and the viccarage estimat 
abone the worth to twa hundreth merkes, but then 
nocht worth ane hundreth pundis with manse and 
glib. The Minister at Prestone then fyftie pund, 
and the wiccarage reakinet to ane hundreth mairkis, 
but abone tlie worth nocht worth fyftie poundes, 
with his manse and gleib and pertinentis. It is the 
bischop of Dunkell his propper kirk. The Bischop 
is persone of both thes parochines. The viccaragis 
of both the parochinis are at the Bischopis gift. 
(Signed) " Dauid Lumisden 
off Blanerne, 
Adame Trumbill, 
J. Gaittis, minister at 

Bonckell. 

" At Bonckell Kirk the first 
of Junij, 1627." 

A reaction seems to have set in in regard to these 
two previously separate churches, and a desire for 
their disunion. " The Brethrein of the presbitrie 
considdering the estait of thir tua kirkis that hea 
bein tua several parochinnis befor the reformation, 
and sensyne served with twa severall ministers with 
manssis and gleibis, and provision for the tyme, maist 
humblie we intreat your L. to disioyne the samyn in 
respect thair is sufficient maintenance for the pro 
vision of them both be the teyndis greit and small, 
and sufficient flockis for them both, as also thair is 
ane great hart burning betuix thir tua parochinnis, 
and dois not resort to the heiring of the vord as it 



22 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

becommis good peopill, and this to be done without 
prejudice of the present minister s stipend. 
" Sic subscribitur ; 

"Mr. J. Methuen, minister 

of Fogo. 
" Mr. Jhone Weemse, minister 

at Dunse." 
&c., &c., &c.* 

Bunkle Church, erected in 1820, is a plain, rect 
angular, barn-like structure, so plain indeed that, 
but for the belfry, one would scarcely suspect it 
was a church at all. Surrounding it is the church 
yard, which contains nothing of interest. The 
oldest stone with legible inscription bears the 
following : 

" Here lyes the corps of Thomas Atchison, who died Jan. 1, 
1686." 

The communion plate consists of two cups, which 
are thus inscribed : 

" For the use of the United Parishes of Bunkle and Prieston, 
26 Feby., 1755." 

The ruins of PRESTON CHURCH and the old 
burial ground occupy an elevated position on the 
left bank of the Whitadder, about a mile and a 
half from Bunkle. 

The existing ruins of the old p re-Reformation 
Church of Preston are sufficient to enable us to 
form a tolerably accurate idea of its form and 
dimensions. Like nearly all the old churches, it 
was long and very narrow ; the length being about 

* Reports on the State of Certain Parishes in Scotland. 



BUNKLE AND PRESTON 23 

three times its width. The main building consisted 
of a nave and chancel. The wall on the north side 
of the nave is entirely demolished, while consider 
able portions on the south remain ; and the west 
gable is pretty entire. On the north side of the 
building there are obscure indications of a lateral 
adjunct, which Mr. Ferguson suggests may have 
been a sacristy. 

The chancel, which measures internally 18 feet 
6 inches by 14 feet 6 inches, is much less ruinous 
than the nave, but is so overgrown with ivy that its 
features are barely discernible. In the east gable 
are two obtusely-pointed windows, 4 feet 10 inches 
apart, each 3^ feet high by 1 foot 3 inches wide. 
On the outside they are flush with the wall, the 
edges being merely chamfered, and each of the 
pointed heads is cut out of one stone. Internally, 
they are widely splayed, with a segmental arch 
above. There is a smaller window in the south 
wall, very obtusely pointed outside, but having a 
flat head and sill within. Underneath it is a piscina 
of very poor and rude character, but interesting as 
the only example in situ left in Berwickshire, if we 
except those in Dry burgh Abbey. It has an ex 
cessively shallow basin sunk in a square stone, 
which is inserted diagonally in the wall, so as to 
leave a triangular projection of about 18 inches at 
the base of an equally shallow round-headed recess, 
measuring 2 feet 2 inches by 1 foot 6 inches. The 
basin stone is corbelled off below, and has a plain 
half-round moulding along the under edge, and 
running up the front angle of the projecting 
portion. In the west wall of the chancel there is 



24 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

observable a blocked semi-circular arch, which may 
have been the original chancel arch, although the 
dressing of the stones on the side next the nave 
has a suspiciously modern look. The only feature 
in the west gable of the nave is a blocked pointed 
window, closely resembling those in the east gable, 
but a little wider and scarcely so high. The 
church, as at first built, was entered by two square- 
headed, plainly chamfer-edged doorways in the 
south wall, one opening into the nave and the 
other into the chancel. A third at the east end of 
the nave has been added at a comparatively recent 
period. In the wall, immediately above this last- 
mentioned doorway, there is inserted a circular 
stone, 12^ inches in diameter, with a cross patee 
carved in high relief upon it. This can hardly 
have been a consecration cross, these being usually 
incised or cut in low-relief. Whatever may have 
been its original significance or use, it has, no 
doubt, been placed in its present position at the 
time of the construction of the doorway just 
referred to.* 

Adjacent to the church on the south side is the 
churchyard, still used for interments in the southern 
part of the parish. 

An old weather-worn stone, with some exquisite 
carved work on it, bears date 1672, with death s- 
head, cross bones, &c. 

A small, very plain stone is inscribed : 

" Here lyes the body of Jeams Co wen died 27 January 1711 
his eag 67 years." 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



BUNKLE AND PRESTON. 25 

On a neat slate-coloured stone, erected to the 
memory of a husband and wife, are these lines : 

" Cease then frail nature to lament in vain, 
Reason forbids to wish them back again ; 
Rather congratulate their happy fate, 
And their advancement to a glorious state." 

The old communion tokens, which were struck 
in 1790, are still preserved, and are of three different 
kinds. 

First, the square ones, inscribed on one side 

thus : 

"Buncle & Preston." 

On the other side : 

"Mr R . D 1790." 

These are the initials of Robert Douglas, minister 
(see list of ministers). 

Second, the round ones, inscribed : 

"B v 

P K 

on one side ; the reverse side is plain. 

Third, round, and inscribed : 
"B p 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Bunkle since 1582 : 

William Sinclair 1582 to 1599. 
George Reidpath, M. A. 1599 to 1607. 
Matthew Carrail 1607 to 1612. 
John Gaittis*-1614 to 1640. 

* Gaittis, being at the castle of Dunglass with a party of 
soldiers, left to watch the motions of the garrison of Berwick, 
under the command of Thomas Earl of Haddington, the powder 
magazine was fired by an incendiary, and exploded, 30th August, 
1640, when the commander, Mr. G., and about sixty-six others, 
were killed, while thirty-three were wounded. Scott s Fasti 
EccUsioK ScotlcancK. 



26 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Robert Golden, M. A. 1650 to 1664. 
George Trotter, M. A. 1665 to 1677. 
Alexander Nicolson, M.A. 1678 to 1689. 
Alexander Golden, M. A. 1690 to 1693. 
Ninian Home, M. A. -1696 to 1704. 
Walter Hart, M.A. 1706 to 1761. 
Robert Douglas 1765 to 1801. 
John Campbell 1802 to 1818. 
Archibald M Conechy* 1819 to 1843. 
John Dunlop 1843 to 1880. 
Ludovic Mair (present incumbent) 1880. 

PRESTON. 
William Sinclair 1590 to 1616. 



* M Conechy, on joining in the Free Secession and signing 
the Deed of Demission, was declared no longer a minister of this 
church, 20th June, 1843. Scott s Fasti Eccksice Scoticana. 



CHANNELKIRK. 27 



Cbannelftirft. 

THE name was written in the parish records in 
1650 Chingalkirk* 

A church existed here in the time of David I. 
(1124-1153). By a grant of that king, Hugh 
Morville became proprietor of the district and the 
advowson of the ancient church. Subsequently, 
Morville, in gratitude to his royal benefactor, as 
much as from motives of piety, soon after gifted 
the church to the canons of Dryburgh. This gift 
was confirmed by his sou, Richard Morville, after 
the death of Hugh in 1162, and was approved by 
Malcolm IV. (1153-1165). The church remained 
in possession of the canons of Dryburgh till the 
Reformation. It was dedicated to St. Cuthbert, 
who once lived in this part, and, according to the 
story of his life, as a boy he lived here " under the 
care of a certain religious man" during the absence 
of his mother on a pilgrimage to Rome. Mention 
is also made in the anonymous Life of St. Cuthbert 
that " he was watching over the flocks of his master 
near the river Leader," and it was here that he had 
that vision which led him to devote himself to a 
religious life, and forthwith he became a monk in 
the monastery of Melrose. 

The original church was cruciform in shape. In 

* It has been contended, though on very slender authority, 
that the ancient name was Children s Kirk, because it was dedi 
cated to the children of Bethlehem, or the Holy Innocents. 



28 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

1627 the building was in a partially ruinous con 
dition. According to an official report of that year 
"the quir was without ane roofe, to the great 
scandall off the gospell and prejudice of the 
parishiners." In 1702 it underwent extensive 
alterations and repairs, and in 1817 the old walls 
were taken down and the present building erected 
iii its stead. We learn something of the state of 
this church and parish in the year 1627 from an 
official report issued that year : 

" Parish of Chingilkirk. 

" For the church of Chingilkirk, quhilk holdis of 
Drybrughe. 

" Thair hes nott beine as yitt a manse for a 
minister by reasone of the none residence of my 
predecessours, so that I am very ewill vsit. 

" I have no sowmes grasse nor muire to cast 
elding and diffott into, to my great hurt and skaith, 
notwithstanding thair is muche kirkland in my 
parochine, as Over Howdeu, Nether Howden, twa 
husband landis in Huxtoune, and my Lady 
Ormeistoune s kirklandis besyde the kirk, and 
the Hillhouse, quhilk perteines to the Laird of 
Herdmeistoune. 

" It is shame to sie the queir so long without 
ane roofe, neither can the parochiners gett halfe 
rowme in the kirk. 

" The quir is without ane roofe, to the great 
scandall of the gospell and prejuduce of the 
parishiners that cannot get rowme in the kirk, the 
quir being doune. 

It is not fewd land, but being viccars land of 



CHANNELKIRK. 29 

old, arid now withholden from the ministery at that 
kirk, hinders satling, and maid all my predeces- 
souris non-residentis ; neither can I get grasse to 
two kye, to my great greiffe and skaith, quhilk I 
hope shall now be gratiouslie amendid, to the per- 
petuall satling of a ministry at that kirk. 

" If it shall please the Lord to withhold His 
judgments from the land, so that thir fore-namitt 
rowmes be weill plenishit they may yeild the forsaid 
stok and teind, and quhen the ground is punishit, 
the heritour and teirider must nott be frie. 

" Thus have I (bona fide) vsit all diligence to 
informe myself anent the premisses, neither might 
I opinlie tak the help of my parishiners, because 
being maillmen and in wsse to pay for the teindis 
they wald have sett all things at naught, quhilk I 
could not suffer, and thairfoir lies takin the wholle 
burtheine on myself, and yit lies neither prejudgit 
maister nor tennand. In the meane tyme, but 
keiping ane pure conscience, hes indevoirit to give 
all possible satisfactioune to all parties that hes 
anj* interest in this business, and that indifferently, 
without any partiall deilling. 

" Mr. Henry Cokburne, 

Minister of the Evangell 

off our Lord att Chingilkirke. - 

The church occupies a commanding position, 
and, with the hamlet of Channclkirk, is said to 
stand within the area of an old Roman camp. The 
building, with the exception of its crow-stepped 
gables and projecting cornice below, is severely 
plain. The interior is exceedingly comfortable, 
having been recently renovated. 



30 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The churchyard surrounding the church contains 
one or two interesting stones. 

A peculiarly-shaped stone, with several rudely- 
carved, grotesque human figures, is thus inscribed : 

" Heir lieth Marion Brock daughter to William Brock 
Gardinr in Wxton [?] who deperted the 29 of Aprile 1721 and of 
hir age 19 years." 

Below this are rudely carved the rake, spade, and 
cross bones. 

On a very small stone are these words : 

" Here lyes my bones 
Now fred from groanes 
Waiting the spring. 
" My saul s above 
With Christ in love 
And there doth ring." 

On the other side of this stone we read : 

" Here lyes John Dewar Husband to Elspeth Stevart who 
departed this life the 24 of March 1685 being the 65 year of hir 
age." 

A very large horizontal stone is thus inscribed 
along the bevelled edges : 

" Omnem diem tibi defluxisse supremum." 
And on the flat upper surface : 

" Here lyes the body of William Wigrt tenant in Glengelt 
who died Apr 16 1682." 

In early times there were two chapels in this 
parish subordinate to the church of Channelkirk 
one at Glengelt and the other at Confrae. 

Concerning the chapel of Glengelt, it is stated 
that "Henry de Murdeville," who enjoyed the 
lands of Glengelt in the reign of William the 
Lion (1165-1214), granted to the canons of Dry- 



CHANNELKIRK. 31 

burgh an indemnity that the chapel of Glengelt 
should not injuriously affect the mother church of 
"Childin-kirk."* 

Of the chapel at Confrae, it is recorded that, in 
the thirteenth century, John de St. Glair, who 
possessed the lands of Carfrae, granted an in 
demnity to the canons of Dryburgh that his chapel 
of Confrae should not injure the mother church of 
Childinkirk.t 

Of these chapels not a vestige now remains. 

A quarter of a mile to the west there is a per 
ennial spring of excellent water called the Well of 
the Holy Water Cleugh a name conferred by 
ancient superstition. 

A road, called the Girthgate, passing through the 
western boundary of the parish, was used by the 
monks on their way from Melrose to Edinburgh. 
It is a broad green path, on which, it is said, the 
surrounding heath never grows. On this road, a 
few miles due west of the church, were to be seen, 
not many years ago, the ruins of an old building 
commonly known by the name of Rest Law, or 
Restlaw Haw. Tradition tells us that this was the 
place where monks and pilgrims stopped or rested 
for refreshment, it being about half-way between 
Melrose and Edinburgh.^ 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Channelkirk since 1611 : 

John Gibsoun, reader in Channelkirk 1576. 
Allan Lundie, M.A. 1611 to 1614. 

* Chartulary of Dryburgh. 
+ Chartulary of Dryburgh. 
Old Statistical Account. 



32 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Francis Collace, M. A. 1615 to 1625. 

Henry Cockburn, M.A. 1625 to 1650. 

David Liddell, M. A. -1654 to 1662. 

Henry Cockburn, M.A. (reinstated) 1662 to 1663. 

Walter Keyth, M.A. 1663 to 1682. 

William Arrott, M. A. 1683 to 1696. 

Henry Home, M.A. 1702 to 1751. 

David Scott 1752 to 1792. 

Thomas Murray 1793 to 1808. 

John Brown 1809 to 1828. 

James Rutherford 1828 to 1862. 

James Walker 1862 to 1884. 

Joseph Lowe-1885 to 1891. 

Archibald Allan, M.A. (present incumbent) 1892. 



CHTRNSIDE. 33 



<t b i r n i J> e. 

OF the early history and date of foundation of 
the original church of Chirnside we know very 
little, beyond the fact that it is very ancient. It 
has been asserted, indeed, though with insufficient 
evidence, that a temple or place of worship existed 
here previous to the eleventh century, and was 
used by the aboriginal inhabitants. Certain it is 
that a church and place of defence were erected at 
Chirnside at a very early period. The church and 
its pertinents were granted by the Scottish Edgar 
(101)7-1107) to the monks of Coldingham ; so that 
at that early period, if not before, a church existed 
here. There is a tradition in the district that the 
western door, which is part of the original structure, 
is as old as the Saxon heptarchy. Unfortunately, 
however, there is no evidence whatever to support 
this theory. 

The church in the thirteenth century was a 
rectory in the deanery of the Merse. The first of 
its clergy on record is Symon, parsona de Chirnesyde, 
who flourished between the years 1248 and 1249. 
The patronage of the rectory of Chirnside anciently 
belonged to the Earls of Dunbar, and when Earl 
Patrick founded the collegiate church of Dunbar, 
during the reign of David II., he annexed to it the 
advowson and property of the church, which thus 
formed one of the collegiate prepends. William 

C 



34 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

de Blida (Blythe), successor to Symon above 
mentioned, swore fealty to Edward I. in August, 
1296, and in consequence had his forfeited property 
restored. 

The church formerly possessed the adjunct of a 
western tower, which was taken down about the 
year 1750; and it would seem, from a reference in 
the Old Statistical Account of the parish, to have 
been vaulted in stone. The existing south wall, 
and portions of the others, are of great thickness, 
and are probably original ; but if so, they have been 
to a considerable extent refaced in the course of 
the somewhat frequent repairs and restorations to 
which the building has been subjected. It is for 
tunate that these operations the last of which 
was carried through in 1876, and in a manner, let 
us thankfully admit, on the whole, both tasteful 
and appropriate have left to us in very nearly 
its original state the interesting doorway already 
referred to. It consists of a recessed semi-circular 
archway of two square-edged orders, rising from 
cylindrical shafts, with scolloped capitals and square 
abaci, the lower edges of which are bevelled off. 
The daylight, or actual entrance to the building, is 
square headed, with a flattish edge roll round the 
jambs and lintel; and the tympanum, which 
measures 18 inches to the soffit of the inner arch, 
is quite plain. The outer face of the inner order 
is chevroned; two quarter rolls, placed side by side, 
are carried round the external one ; and a plain 
weather moulding or hood, sloping on the upper 
side, but square below, surmounts the whole. All 
the mouldings, except the chevron, are sadly muti- 



CHIRNSIDE. 35 

lated and wasted. The two outer pillars, with the 
exception of their capitals and abaci, are restora 
tions, as are also the bases of the inner ones, and 
it is to be regretted that the mistake has been 
committed of making each of the restored shafts a 
disengaged monolith, whereas in the old work 
they were cut out of the jambs. The doorway is 
placed within a broad shallow quasi porch, near the 
west end of the south wall, and projecting about 
ten inches from the wall face.* 

Near the old doorway may be seen a fragment 
of what formed a necessary factor for disciplinary 
purposes in every church edifice viz., the jougs. 
Only a few links remain of this relic of a barbarous 
custom. This instrument was used as a sort of 
pillory for a certain class of delinquents, such as 
those who were guilty of too vigorous scolding, 
brawling, fighting, swearing, drunkenness, &c. 

On the south-west corner of the church is an old 
sundial, which bears the motto : 

" Hog age dam lumen adest, 1816."t 

The building itself is a long, low structure, with 
no pretensions to grandeur of design or architec 
tural style. The church was rebuilt in 1572, since 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 

t The dial itself is older than the lettering. The church 
dates from the Norman period, and some work of that time is 
still left ; but it has undergone many transformations and repairs, 
and on the north gable there is a stone inscribed, "Repaired 
1705." This is a much likelier date for the dial than 1816, the 
date it bears. Dr. Stuart, Chirnside, states that there are 
several old dials in the village, and that a man named Dunbar 
was in old times in the habit of making them. Macgibbon & 
Ross Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland. 



36 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

which time it has undergone several alterations and 
repairs. 

The interior of the church is neat, and, by means 
of the improvements effected in the renovation and 
repairs in 1876, is exceedingly comfortable. In 
serted in the wall, to the right of the pulpit, is a 
stone, inscribed in rude lettering, thus : 
"HelpethePvr 1573 V E. 

In the Old Statistical Account it is stated that this 
stone was taken down at the rebuilding of the east 
aisle or old choir, but the date of these operations 
is not given. 

Prominent amongst the stones in the churchyard 
are those erected to the memory of the famous 
Erskines. On a small, but neat, stone are these 
words : 

" Young Henry Areskines corps lyes here (O ! stone . keep . 
in . record . his . dust . with . thee . his . seule . above . we . 
hope . is . with . the . lord) who departed this life July 9 1696 of 
his age 90." 

On the other side of this stone are the hour glass 
and (much defaced) the words " Memento mori" 

Near by, on a large horizontal stone, is a Latin 
inscription, stating that Erskine was minister of 
Chirnside, and the date of his death, with a fine 
eulogy of his character and virtues : 
"M S 

" M ri Hen: Areskini pastoris Chirnsidis qui objit 10 Aug. 
1696 cetatis sure 72 sanctus Areskinus saxo qui conditur isto est 
Lapis seterni vious in Aede Dei non astu Lapis his technave 
volubilis ulla quippe fide in petra constabilitus erat. 

(Under this stone there lyes a stone Living with God above 
Built on the Rock was such an one whom force nor Fraud could 



CHIRNSIDE. 37 

A handsome monument is also erected to his 
memory, and bears the following inscription : 

" Erected by Subscription. 1825. 

" In memory of the Reverend Henry Erskine, a descendant 
of the family of Mar, and some time Minister of this Parish, who 
was eminently distinguished by his Incorruptible Integrity in 
private life, Undaunted Zeal in the service of his Heavenly 
Master, and steady attachment to the Religious Principles of 
the Church of Scotland, at a time when the profession of these 
principles often led to imprisonment and exile, both of which 
he himself endured with exemplary resignation and fortitude. 
He was born at Dryburgh, in the year 1624, ordained at Corn- 
hill in 1649, Ejected in 1662, and persecuted for nonconformity 
to Prelacy ; admitted, soon after the revolution in 1688, to be 
Minister of Chirnside, where he continued in the Faithful Dis 
charge of his Pastoral Duties till 10th August, 1696, when his 
holy and exemplary life terminated in a peaceful and triumphant 
death in the 72d year of his age and 47th of his Ministry. 

" His two younger sons, Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine, were 
the Founders of the Secession Church." 

A small stone bears the words : 

" Robert Darling. 
1690." 

The following interesting inscription appears on 
a large horizontal stone with bevelled edges : 

~ ST^Ii > "Here lys the corps of Richard Spenc | * 

J & | g s son to lames Spenc of Spenc Smains who ^ g. 

? f a " departed this life the 20 of lanu 1685 and ^ a 
8 1,3 cc o" O his age 19 years. 

^ ^ g, 2. "And lames Spenc Lard of Spenc ^ 

*" ^ g 2". Smains ther father who departed this life ^ 

5 the 10 of lanu 1699 and his age 66 years g c 

and Dauid Spenc son to the deceast lames ^ - . 

Spenc of Spenc Smains who departed this ^ g 



38 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Chirnside since 1578 : 

Thomas Storie 1578 to 1585. 

Cranstoun 1585 to 1590. 

David Home, M. A. 1593 to 1606. 

Alexander Smyth 1607 to 1645. 

Patrick Smith, M. A. 1645 to 1649. 

William Galbraith, M. A. 1659 to 1669. 

James Lawtie 1669 to 1689. 

Henry Areskine, M. A. 1690 to 1696. 

William Miller, M.A. 1699 to 1702. 

George Home 1704 to 1755. 

Abraham Home (assistant) 1741 to 1748. 

Walter Anderson, M. A. 1756 to 1800. 

Thomas Logan, M.D. 1801 to 1838. 

James Wilson 1838 to 1870. 

Alexander Forteath Smart (present incumbent) 1870. 

In the centre of the village of Chirnside stands 
the Free Church, a large barn-like building, ill 
suited to the needs of the congregation which 
assemble in it from week to week. It was an old 
"Cameronian" chapel, and. on good authority, it is 
said to be the oldest building in existence which 
was connected with that body. The congregation 
worshipped at first in the fields till, in 1783, a 
church of the most primitive character was erected. 
It was low in the ceiling, and thatched. Since then 
it has undergone some slight repairs. In 1849 
three feet were added to the walls, and the old 
thatched roof gave place to the present slated roof. 
The present walls, with the exception of the slight 
addition and the brick passages, belong to the 
original fabric of last century. There is a flourish 
ing and increasing congregation, to accommodate 
which the present building is found to be inade- 



CHIRNSIDE. 39 

quate, and a new church is in contemplation. The 
present minister is John Somerville, B.D., settled 
in 1891. 

In a central position in the village, also, there is 
a United Presbyterian Church, built in the year 
1837. It is a neat square building, greatly en 
hanced by two low square towers, one at each of 
the front corners. The interior is light and com 
fortable. The present minister is William Ruther 
ford, inducted 3d February, 18G9. 



40 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



Cocfcburnspattx 

IT was not till after the Reformation that Cock- 
burnspath became a separate and independent 
parish. Previous to that it formed a chapelry of 
Oldhamstocks. It includes the ancient parish of 
Auldcambus, which belonged to the monastery of 
Coldiugham as a cell of Durham. 

Cockburnspath parish was made up of parts of 
Coldingharn, Oldhamstocks, arid Abbey St. Bathans. 
As a chapelry it is old, co-existent probably with 
the hospital, and both dating back to the thirteenth 
century. 

The chapelry and hospital were in combination. 
The seal of Master Robert, the chaplain of Cock 
burnspath, is affixed to a charter given at Ayton 
in 1255. The title of Master belonged to the 
hospital a leper hospital, no doubt it was where 
some of the local victims of an incurable and loath 
some disease found refuge and support.* 

It is doubtful if the foundations of the present 
church, which are very old, are those of the ancient 
chapel. There is a place called Chapelhill, at some 
distance from Cockburnspath, near which there are 
indications of a graveyard having existed. This 
would probably be connected with the chapel. 



* Dr. Hardy. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



COCKBURNSPATH. 41 

Whether the hospital with its chapel and burial- 
ground was located in the village is uncertain.* 

In the Chartulary of the Priory of Coldiugham is 
preserved a charter, by which William the Lion 
confirms a grant of half a carrucate of land to the 
hospital.f 

The present church building is of a peculiar 
shape, its length being about 4-| times its breadth. 
The internal dimensions are 80 feet long and 18 
feet 3 inches broad. At the west end of the church 
there is a curiously shaped tower or belfry. It is 
circular, and reaches to a height of 30 feet, its 
internal diameter being 6 feet, and the walls 15 
inches thick. Its age is uncertain, but some anti- 

* The chapelry and hospital are mentioned in the Berwick 
shire Retours, No. 145, Oct. 7, 1625, as being in possession of 
Master James Nicolsone de Cockbandspeth, and specified as 
"the Kirklands (still so named) of Auldhamstockis, lying in 
the Maynes, and within the vill of Cockbrandispeth, called Lie 
Hispitell. " 

t The following is a transcript of that charter, which has 
hitherto remained unpublished. Is is entitled " Confirmatio 
Donationis Hospitali de Aldcambus Facti " : " Willelmus Dei 
gratia Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus totius terre sue 
clericis et laicis salutem. Sciant presentes et f uturi me concessisse, 
et hac carta mea confirmasse donationem illam, quam David de 
Quicheswde fecit Hospitali de Aldcambus et Leprosis ibi manenti- 
bus, de ilia dimidia carucata terras in Aldcambus quam Radulfus 
Pelliparius tenuit : tenendam in liberam et puram at perpeluam 
elemosinatn, cum omnibus libertatibus et aisiamentis et predictam 
terrain juste pertinentibus, ita libere et quiete sicut carta pre- 
dicti Davidis testatur : Salvo servicio meo. Testibus Willelmo 
de Bosch. Cancellario meo, Waltero Cuming. Davide de 
Hastings. Appud Jeddewrith, XVI. die Maij." ArclicEolo<)ical 
Essays, by the late Sir James Y. Simpson, Bart., M.D., D.C.L. 
In the foregoing Latin extract the original orthography is 
preserved. 



42 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

quaries are inclined to regard it as very ancient. 
There are a number of apertures in its upper part 
which resemble the loopholes of peel towers, and 
suggest the idea of its having been erected as a 
watch tower.* 

Near the east end of the building there are 
remains of a base course of early character; a 
buttress, with a rude pedimental head, is placed 
diagonally against each angle of the church ; and 
the head of a window, of second-pointed date, has 
been preserved, and embedded in the south wall. 
This window has been of two foliated round-headed 
lights, with a quatre-foiled circle above, and over 
the whole is a pointed label terminating on each 
side in a kind of notch head.f 

An old lintel has been inserted at this part, which 
is said to have been taken from another building 
having no connection with the church. It is 
inscribed thus : 

"IN I H 1652." 

When the more ancient part of the church was 
built no one has ever been able to discover. It is, 
however, an ancient structure ; one of the stones 
taken from it, while undergoing repairs, bearing 
date 1163. It remained long in a most uncomfort 
able state, but repairs at various times have been 
made upon it, especially in 1807, when it was newly 

* Macgibbon and Ross, who are perhaps the best authorities 
on such subjects, are of opinion that this tower dates back to 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. One feature, however, 
does seem to militate against this theory, and that is the thin 
ness of its walls. 

t Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



COCKBURNSPATH. 43 

seated and rendered more comfortable, and again 
to a considerable extent in 1826.* 

Surmounting the buttress at the south-west 
corner is a curious old sundial, which is supposed to 
date back to the beginning of the sixteenth century .| 

The communion plate consists of two silver cups, 
engraved " This cup belongs to the church of 
Cockburnspath. s . AH708." 

The churchyard contains nothing specially in 
teresting. The oldest stone now legible is a small 
one, inscribed thus : 

" Here . lyeth . John . Sinclar . who . departed . this . life 
3th . of . May . 1726 . and . of his age . . . 

On the other side of this stone are the death s 
head, cross bones, and hour glass. 



* New Statistical Account. 

t Referring to the sundials on the churches at Cockburnspath, 
Oldhamstocks, Macgibbon and Ross say : " These are sloping 
dials, and, so far as our observation goes, they are unique 
amongst attached sundials, which are all upright ; and as these 
two dials probably date from early in the sixteenth century, 
they may be regarded as the forerunners of the lectern dials, 
to be considered under a separate head. The dial at Cock 
burnspath forms the terminal of the angle buttress at the 
S.W. corner of the church ; its face leans forward, and the skies 
are splayed away ; the upper surface slopes backwards to the 
skew of the gable, and is hollowed like a half cylinder. A 
singular piece of stone sticks out like the stump of an ampu 
tated arm from the west side. Whether this was meant to tell 
the time by its shadow on the gable cannot be determined, as 
the wall is harled over. The west end of this church, includ 
ing the buttress and the singular round tower, as well as the 
east end, probably date from about the beginning of the six 
teenth century, and without doubt the dial is part of the original 
structure." Macgibbon and Ross Castellated and Domestic 
Architecture of Scotland from the Twelfth to the. Eiyhteenih Century. 



44 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The following beautiful lines appear on a nine 
teenth century stone : 

" Dear is this spot where her dust sleeps, 
And sweet the strains her spirit pours ; 
Oh, why should we in anguish weep, 
She is not lost, but gone before." 

There is an old handbell belonging to this parish, 
which is said to have been rung before funerals. 
It is encircled by three lines of inscriptions as 
follows : 

" Gifted . be . John . Henrie . Bower . in . Edinbvrgh . to . 
the . Sessione . and . Kirke . of . Cockburnspeth . 1650." 

The church of Aldcambus, called St. Helen s Kirk, 
is situated three miles east from Cockburnspath, 
close to the sea shore. The writer of the Old 
Statistical Account, referring to its antiquity, says : 
" From the nature of the building and other 
circumstances it is supposed to have been erected 
some time in the seventh century." 

There is, unfortunately, no evidence to bear out 
this statement. A careful examination of the 
building by Mr. Muir in 1845 points to an origin 
not earlier than the first quarter of the twelfth 
century, although it may have replaced a structure 
of earlier date. 

A considerable portion of the old building is still 
standing, but in quite a ruinous condition, sur 
rounded by the old burial-ground. The ruin was 
pretty entire when examined by Mr. Muir in 1845, 
and the appearance of the place and its architec 
tural features are described by him with great 
minuteness and accuracy : 

" This lonely and weather-beaten fragment of 



COCKBURNSPATH. 45 

early Christian art, with its little surrounding burial- 
ground, stands on an elevation overlooking the 
ocean, about three miles east of the village of 
Cockburnspath. It belongs to the Norman period, 
and consists of a chancel, internally 15 feet 6 inches 
long by 11 feet 5 inches wide ; and nave, 30 feet 
6 inches by 16 feet 11 inches. 

" The nave is grievously reduced, but has still 
the remains of a south-east window and indications 
of a north-west doorway and vaulted roof. In the 
east end of the south wall, and close to the ground, 
is a plain square-edged, segmental-headed recess, 
5 feet 9 inches wide and 9 inches deep; and im 
mediately east of it is another of bisected form, 
with its crown abutting on the wall of the chancel- 
arch. The west wall, with its gable, is nearly 
perfect, though manifestly of later date. It has a 
plain triangular-headed buttress of three unequal 
stages placed diagonally on each corner; in all 
other respects, it is simply a mass of dead wall, in 
part, most likely, composed of wrecked portions of 
the ancient fabric, as the stones are nearly similar 
in size and shape to those in the building at large, 
and some of them, in the inner plane are hatched 
with the chevron moulding, and indubitably are 
parts of some of the windows or doorway arches. 

" The separation of the chancel is very distinctly 
marked both internally and on the outside, but the 
whole compartment is very nearly in as ruinous 
a condition s the nave. Scarcely anything of the 
south wall is left, but the north and east elevations 
are tolerably entire : the former is blank ; in the 
latter is a small, very slightly pointed light, a little 



46 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

recessed, under a shallow rectangular nook of the 
same form, 2 feet 4 inches long by 6 inches wide. It 
is quite plain, has its head of one stone, and opens 
upon the interior in a deep splay 5 feet high by 
2 feet 11 inches wide. The, inner aperture is semi 
circular, and has a single hollow chevron carried 
round the head and down the sides close to the 
edges both outside and within. 

Of the chancel arch, which apparently has 
been of two chevroned orders, two or three of the 
voussoirs alone remain on each side ; but the jambs 
are comparatively whole, and consist of four slender 
half-roll shafts, two grouped together under one 
double-escalloped capital, on each side of a large 
capitaled half-roll thrust prominently forward to 
meet the soffit-rib of the arch. None of the bases 
are visible. The capitals are quite perfect, very 
heavy, arid had, as appears by a remnant, enor 
mously ponderous abaci returned along the entire 
west face of the wall. The extant portion is on 
the north side. It is of the common trigonal form, 
and has its intermediate face, which is 7 inches 
broad, continued with a double row of continuously 
notched squares studded with saltiers, the rude 
typifications, doubtless, of the star-moulding of the 
more enriched example. Like that of mostly all 
the old churches of Scotland, the masonry is ex 
cellent. The material, however, does not seem of 
a very durable description. It is of that deep red 
colour common to many parts of the country, but 
which is more abundantly present in the buildings 
of this district, both ancient and modern. It is 
worthy of remark that the burial-ground north of 



COCKBURNSPATH. 47 

the church does not appear ever to have been used 
for the purposes of interment."* 

About a dozen stones are all that remain, and 
these are defaced and scattered about in a most 
shameful and dilapidated condition. 

On a large horizontal stone are these words : 

" Here lyes Evphan Sebbald who departed this life the 6 of 
March 1672. Also Margret Atchison who departed this life the 
27 of December 1697 and of hir age 41 years." 

J Also Jamea Suanston who departed this life the 15 of Agust 
1717 and of his age 75 years." 

Another large horizontal stone is inscribed thus: 

"Here lyes William Swanstown who departed this life the 
9 of Febrwary 1711 and of his age 24 years." 

The inscription on a large horizontal stone, with 
bevelled edges, is as follows : 

" Here lyes John Broun who departed this life the third of 
Jully 1686 and of his age 26 As also 

" Here lyes William Roughead who departed this life the 26 
of January 1710 and of his age 21 years." 

An old horizontal stone, which was almost entirely 
covered over with turf, and lying considerably 
below the general level of the ground, has these 
words : 

" Heir lies John and Jen it Booklesses 1668 1669." 
" Here lyes Georg Bookless who departed this life seuenth of 
Jun 1748." 

Another horizontal stone bears the dates 

" 1646 1655," 

as well as initial letters, but, unfortunately, the 
latter are hidden by another large heavy stone. 

* Descriptive Notices of some of the Ancient Parochial and 
Collegiate Churches of Scotland, by T. S. Muir, 1848. 



48 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

This shows the utter confusion into which the place 
has been allowed to drift. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Cockburnspath since 1617 : 

John Lauder (in Auldcambus) 1617 to 1627. 

George Sydserfe, M. A. -1627 to 1639. 

James Wright, M. A. 1640 to 1656. 

Richard Callender, M. A. 1657 to 1663. 

George Pollok, M. A. 1663 to 1671. 

David Stirling, M.A. 1671 to 1681. 

John Barclay, M. A. 1682 to 1689. 

David Clunie, M. A. 1689 to 1700. 

Henry Shaw- 1702 to 1746. 

David Spence 1748 to 1789. 

Andrew Spence 1789 to 1844. 

James Stirling (assistant and successor) 1805 to 1830. 

Andrew Baird* (assistant and successor) 1831 to 1843. 

William Paterson 1843 to 1863. 

John M. Buchanan (assistant and successor) 1863 to 1869. 

Joseph Hunter (assist, and sue., present incumbent) 1869. 

There is a neat Free Church in the village of 
Cockburnspath, erected in 1890. The congregation 
formerly worshipped at Oldhamstocks. The pre 
sent minister is David Hewitt, M.A., settled in 1882. 

There is also a United Presbyterian Church at 
Stockbridge, in this parish. The present minister 
is Robert Simpson. 

* Baird left the Established and joined the Free Church at 
the Disruption in 1843. Scott s Fasti. 



COLDINGHAM. 49 



Col&ingbatru 

IN this parish there were two distinctly monastic 
institutions that of St. Ebba s, founded in the 
seventh century, and that of Coldiugham proper, 
founded in the eleventh century. Taking these in 
the order of time, as regards their origin, that of 
St. Ebba s falls to be dealt with first. Its great 
antiquity, and the romantic story of its origin, 
claim for St. Ebba s a very special and abiding 
interest. This monastery, which stood on the lofty 
promontory of St. Abb s Head, was founded in the 
year 670 by Princess Ebbe or Ebba, daughter of King 
Ethelfrid, and bister of Eanfrid, Oswald, and Oswin, 
successively kings of Bernicia. It seems that the 
pagan king of Mercia, or Mid-England, sought the 
hand of Princess Ebbe in marriage, and, to escape 
his solicitations, she left Northumberland, intending 
to seek refuge in East Anglia. On the voyage, 
however, her little bark was driven ashore by a 
storm, and she landed in a little creek on the coast 
of Berwickshire, at a place which is now known by 
her name. St. Abb s Head, a bold, dark-coloured 
headland, rises almost perpendicularly 306 feet 
above the waters of the German Ocean. Finding 
here a suitable spot, near where she had found a 
harbour of refuge from the storm, she resolved to 
found a convent in commemoration of the event, 

D 



50 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

and in gratitude to God for her deliverance. Of 
this convent the princess became the first abbess. 

The inmates of this religious house consisted of 
both monks and nuns ; but the discipline was very 
rigid, and prevented all intercourse between the 
two sexes. Anxious to raise the monastery to a 
high moral standard, the abbess sent an urgent 
request to that holy man of God, St. Cuthbert, 
whose wonderful works in and around the monastery 
of Melrose had spread his fame abroad over all the 
land. Responding to this call, St. Cuthbert visited 
St. Abb s, and during a short sojourn in their midst 
he exercised a wonderful influence over the place 
and its inmates. 

In the year 679 the monastery was consumed 
by fire, a calamity not so much the result of negli 
gence as a judgment of heaven upon the inmates 
on account of their dissolute habits. 

Again, in 870 it was plundered and destroyed 
by the Danes. On this occasion, it is said that the 
abbess, in order to preserve the chastity of the nuns, 
induced them to disfigure and mutilate their faces. 
This so enraged the barbarous invaders that they 
set fire to the buildings and massacred the inmates. 
This seems to have been the last of St. Ebba s 
convent, as there is no record of its having been 
rebuilt. Its career of two centuries, even from the 
little we know of it, was a somewhat checkered one. 

The building, like all other ecclesiastical edifices 
of that period, would consist principally of timber, 
and a very rude affair it undoubtedly was. On 
the site of this convent are still to be traced the 
foundations of what appears to have been a chapel. 



COLDINGHAM. 51 

It is in the highest degree improbable that these 
could have formed the foundations of the original 
convent of St. Ebba s. They are more likely to be 
the remains of a chapel subordinate to the Priory 
of Coldingham, and erected many years after the 
demolition of St. Ebba s in 970. 

Two miles south of St. Abb s is Coldingham 
Priory, an institution of much later date than St. 
Ebba s. It is perhaps as well here, in order to 
avoid confusion, to distinguish carefully between 
the monastery, as already noticed, founded in 670 
on St. Abb s Head, and that which was founded 
about four centuries later at Coldingham. The 
monastery of St. Ebba s was practically extinct 
more than a century before that of Coldingham 
came into existence. The latter was not in any 
sense an offshoot or after-growth of the former. 

The priory or monastery of Coldingham was 
founded in the year 1098 by Edgar, King of Scots, 
son of Malcolm Canmore, who, having been driven 
from his throne by a usurper, had fled to England, 
where he obtained from William Rufus an army of 
30,000 men for the recovery of his dominions. 
Fordun tells us that on Edgar s march towards 
Scotland, St. Cuthbert appeared to him in a vision 
by night, promising him the protection of Heaven, 
and directing him to receive his consecrated banner 
from the convent of Durham, and to carry it before 
his troops, which if he did, his enemies would be 
dissipated and fly before him. Edgar related this 
dream to his uncle, Edgar Atheling, by whose 
advice he obeyed in all points the orders of the 



52 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

saint. The Abbot of Durham presented him with 
the banner, and he crossed the Tweed so confident 
in its virtues that it gave him the courage which 
insured success ; and soon after he had succeeded 
in re-establishing his power he founded the monas 
tery of Coldingham, which he dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, and, in testimony of his gratitude to 
St. Cuthbert, he made a present of the place and 
lands belonging to it to the Benedictine monks of 
Durham.* 



* William Brockie. A Brief Sketch of the History of the 
Priory of Goldingham. 

Several authorities, Mr. Brockie amongst them, maintain that 
a religious house existed here in very early times many centuries 
prior to that which was founded by King Edgar in 1098. In 
support of this theory it would seem that, during the restoration 
of the priory in 1857, the workmen came upon the foundation 
walls of what is averred to have been the more ancient structure. 
Referring to those remains, another authority, Mr. King Hunter, 
in his admirable History of the Priory, says : -" The whole 
extent of these foundations was distinctly traceable ; and this 
part of the building appears in the original, as in the after 
erection, to have formed the church of the monastery, but 
stretching a few feet further towards the south than the more 
recent structure. With the exception of the east end, it is of the 
same form namely, an oblong square, of somewhat similar 
dimensions to the after priory. The east end consisted of a 
circular projection or apse in all probability used as the chancel. 
The stone is of the same description as that of which the priory 
is built, of a reddish colour, and supposed to have been brought 
from a quarry called Greenheugh, in the parish of Cockburnspath, 
the nearest place where such stone is now to be found." Mr. 
Hunter goes on to prove at considerable length the existence of 
this early building, but his evidence, it seems to me, is, on the 
whole, insufficient to establish the fact. In the absence, there 
fore, of more reliable documentary evidence, I am inclined to 
think with Mr. Ferguson that the old foundations referred to are 
merely those of King Edgar s foundation. 



COLDINGHAM. 53 

This king, in his munificent liberality, endowed 
the priory with the whole village of Swinton, 
together with many other privileges. He granted 
to the priors the power of exercising ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction over the parishes of Eyemouth. Ay ton, 
Lamberton, Auldcambus, Mordington, Chiruside, 
Buncle, and probably some others. 

The office of prior in these days was not merely 
that of a purely ecclesiastical functionary. It is 
said that, while in the prime glory of his sacred and 
exalted station, he had a retinue of 70 functionaries 
amongst these being the almoner, the master of the 
horse, the manager of the household, the receiver 
of guests, the keeper of the cellar, the brewer, &c. 

Malcolm IV. (1153-1165) also extended his 
patronage to the priory, granting to the monks 
certain important privileges. William the Lion 
(1165-1214), in his turn, invested the prior with 
power to exact a heavy penalty from all who were 
found hunting in the woods or on the moors of 
Coldinghamshire without his permission ; and to 
enforce these conditions he had a forester with 
ample salary settled amongst them. 

About the church of Coldingham we are not so 
well informed. It is supposed to have been founded 
soon after the institution of the priory, although 
we have no documentary evidence to that effect 
amongst the Coldingham records. The first notice 
of it that we find in the chartulary is in a deed 
granted upwards of a hundred years later. We 
know, however, that in 1127 Robert, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, granted to the church of Coldingham 
freedom and exemption from all episcopal aids, such 



54 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

as Custom, Can, or Cuneved (in Gaelic, Canmhath), 
meaning " first fruits." The church was a cell or 
dependency attached to the monastery, and its 
advowson was vested in the prior and chapter of 
the monks.* 

In the years 1292 and 1296 Henry de Horncastre, 
then prior of Coldingham, with the other clergy of 
Coldinghamshire, swore fealty to Edward I. at 
Berwick, and were accordingly reinvested in their 
offices. 

Coldingham, during the fierce wars between 
England and Scotland, shared in the general mis 
fortunes and vicissitudes common to all the religious 
institutions in the south of Scotland, more so, 
indeed, from the fact of its being a dependency of 
Durham, thus laying it open to attacks from English 
and Scots alike. 

During the turbulent regency of the Duke of 
Albany, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
the priory came under the protection of the power 
ful Archibald, Earl of Douglas, one of whose depen 
dents, the Laird of Home, in the Merse, became its 
sub-prior. 

A few years later William Douglas, Earl of Angus 
and Lord of Liddesdale, became special protector 
and defender of the priory and its appurtenances, 
for which he received a liberal salary. 

In 1528, during an incursion by the English, the 
abbey was partly consumed by fire. 

In 1488 an attempt was made on the part of 
King James III. to suppress the priory, but a 

* Mr. Brockie. History of Coldingham Priory. 



COLDINGHAM. 55 

number of powerful barons amongst them the 
Homes, the Hepburns, and the Earl of Angus 
joined in a conspiracy against the King, which 
resulted in his defeat and death at Stirling. 

By Act of Parliament, in 1504, the priory was 
annexed to the Crown, and in 1509 it ceased to 
have any connection with Durham, and became 
annexed to the abbey of Dunfermline, under whose 
jurisdiction it continued till 1560, a year which 
witnessed the overthrow of all the monasteries of 
Scotland. 

In 1544 the English made an incursion into the 
Merse, and marched towards Coldingham. They 
seized the abbey, and fortified the church and 
church tower. In the following year the noble 
abbey, which had stood for nearly 500 years, was 
burned down by that inveterate despoiler, the Earl 
of Hertford. A century later appeared that moral 
scourge, Ottver Cromwell, who blasted everything 
having the smallest semblance of Popery, and dis 
figured some of the finest monuments of architec 
tural beauty, such as no chisel or art has since been 
able to surpass. 

In 1648 Cromwell completed the ruin of the 
church, which had been fortified by the Royalists, 
by blowing it up witli gunpowder after the capitu 
lation of the garrison. Only the east and north 
walls of the choir, with a tower, affirmed by Can 
to have stood at the north-west angle of the tran 
sept, but which was probably the central tower, or 
a reconstruction of it, and some portions of the 
transepts themselves and of the monastic buildings 
were left standing. A south and a west wall were 



56 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

subsequently added to the choir to convert it into 
a parish church ; and it is to this fortunate circum 
stance that we owe the preservation of the scanty 
remains of the once glorious fabric. The tower 
already mentioned fell about a century ago, and its 
ruins, as well as those of the other portions of the 
priory not used for divine service, became the prey 
of every heritor and householder in the neighbour 
hood who was in need of materials for building.* 

Since the beginning of this century, however, a 
better spirit has set in, so that what the barbarians 
had left of these sacred edifices, is now carefully 
preserved. The choir of Coldingham Abbey Church, 
which had been used as the parish church for nearly 
three hundred years, was put in good order by the 
heritors in 1857. The first step in the restoration 
was to strip the church of its cumbrous internal 
fittings galleries, pews, &c. and restore the 
building to the state in which it was left in the 
days of Cromwell, but further mutilated and de 
faced by the rude hand of time, and the more rude 
and destructive hand of man. The next was to 
remove a large depth of earth from the internal 
area, lowering the floor about six feet, and exhibit 
ing a corresponding portion of the decorated wall 
hitherto lost to view. On the outside the earth 
was excavated to the base of the building. Thus 
the ruin stood naked to view, presenting the north 
and east walls of the ancient building. The west 
wall was next rebuilt in the original style, and also 
the south wall in a style approaching to the ancient, 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



COLDINGHAM. 57 

but, on account of the expense, without its old 
decorations. The corner towers were carried up 
as they were supposed to have existed originally. 
The roof was to a considerable extent renewed, the 
ceiling having been replaced with polished stained 
wood, in imitation of oak. The whole of the 
beautiful architectural decorations were cleared of 
the unseemly coatings of white ; and those parts 
which were effaced and mutilated were thoroughly 
restored, and all broken pillars and bases, where 
incapable of repair, were replaced by new ones of 
so close an imitation as scarcely to be distinguish 
able. The general cathedral-like effect is grand 
and imposing, there being no galleries, and the 
character and arrangement of the pews and fittings 
being in strict conformity with the building.* 

The architectural features of the north and east 
walls of the choir by far the oldest portion of 
the building, not the remains of King Edgar s 
foundation, however, but of a restoration in the 
end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth 
century are thus faithfully and minutely de 
scribed by Mr. Muir : 

" The style of the architecture is partly Norman 
and partly First Pointed; neither, however, quite 
pure, but each slightly dashed, as it were, with a 
tinge of the other. Externally, the north elevation 
exhibits some single light lancet windows, divided 
from one another by broad shallow buttresses pro 
jecting only a few inches from the wall. The head 
mouldings of the windows are composed of half and 

* Mr. Brockic; History of Coldinyliam Priory. 



58 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

three-quarter rounds deeply under-cut, rising from 
banded edge-shafts, with floriated capitals and 
annular bases, resting on a circle of balls. 

" Besides the Norman character of the buttresses, 
additional indications of a style earlier than that 
shown in the general form and details of the 
windows may be traced in the square-shaped abaci 
of the shafts, and in the foliage of the capitals, 
which has much of the thin, wiry, and rather 
meagre execution of the floriations belonging to 
the Transition or Semi-Norman period. 

" The same modification, or rather admixture of 
styles, is also observable in the Norman arcade, 
which occupies the under compartment of the 
elevation. This ornamental feature is arranged in 
couplets below the windows, and separated from 
them by a narrow trigonal string, which, after 
coursing their cills and making a slight vertical 
descent a little beyond the line of the jambs, 
terminates in a horizontal return across the but 
tresses, dividing them about midway. The semi 
circular arches fill the whole breadth of each 
compartment, and are composed of a small sharp- 
edged triangular moulding set between quarter 
and half-rounds, with a bold trigonal drip over. 
These spring from single cylindrical edge-shafts, 
with Norman abaci and First Pointed capitals, and 
two central bearing shafts of the same form, 
engaged by a small semi-octagonal member sunk 
between. 

" Regarding the east end of the building little 
requires to be said. In arrangement, style, and 
detail, it agrees very closely with the portion 



COLDINGHAM. 59 

already described. The wall is nearly entire, and 
is flanked by square turrets, with cylindrical shafts 
sunk in their angles. The bases of the turrets are 
moulded, and their heads have sloping roofs, after 
the manner of set-offs, which give to these adjuncts 
much of the appearance of ponderous buttresses. 
In the north one each of the two stages, formed by 
the string course, is pierced with a narrow lancet- 
headed slit. The facade between the turrets 
contains three windows similar to those in the north 
wall, divided also by wide pilasters. The arcade 
below is likewise in conformity in all respects, 
excepting as regards the mouldings, which are 
chevroned. 

" The same order in the disposition of parts 
observed in the outside is maintained in the in 
terior; but, besides greater coherence of style, there 
is a singularity in the constructional form which 
has a peculiarly rich and striking effect. Ac open 
arcade, formed in the thickness of the wall, and in 
appearance resembling a triforium, is carried along 
the upper compartment, of sufficient depth to admit 
of free passage round the building. The arches 
are set in couplets between the windows, by which 
they are divided apart, but without disturbing the 
continuity, as their heads are so contrived as to 
combine with, and to give a beautiful variety of 
form to, the general arrangement. The faces of 
the arches are finely moulded with a series of 
rounds, individually relieved by deep uridercuttings. 
The bearing shafts are of two kinds those nearest 
the windows are semi-cylindrical triple clusters, the 
outer or projecting member being a little pointed; 



60 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

the intermediate ones are composed of two half- 
rounds, with a semi-octagonal moulding between. 
The bases belonging to both kinds are rolls main 
taining the plan of the shaft, and are set on square 
plinths, the outer faces of which are flush with the 
plane of the subjacent wall. Single cylindrical 
shafts, resting on the abaci of the shafts below, are 
also attached to the edges of the window-jambs, 
and from them the mouldings of the archivolt have 
their spring. 

"In the shape of the arches, grouping of the 
mouldings, and configuration of the most of the 
minor details, there is here to be observed a much 
nearer approach to integrity of style than is to be 
found on the external edifice. The capitals, how 
ever, still retain the square abacus ; and the foliage, 
although better developed and more varied in 
design than is usually to be met with among early 
Semi-Norman structures, is yet a wanting in the 
prominence, and that peculiar freedom and sweet 
ness of turn so conspicuous in the herbaceous forms 
of the mature First-Pointed period."* 

About a mile to the east of St. Ebba s monastery 
is the site of another chapel and burying-ground. 
Half-a-century ago the remains of this chapel were 
considerable. Now a series of grassy mounds, with 
fragments of masonry appearing here and there 
above the surface, are all that remain. 

Near Reston, in this parish, there existed a chapel 



* Descriptive Notices of some of the Parochial and Colleyiate 
Churcltes of Scotland, by T. S. Muir. 



COLDINGHAM. 61 

dedicated to St. Nicholas. It is styled in one of the 
Coldingham charters, " The chapel of St. Nicholas, 
situated in the vill of West Riston." Its exact site, 
however, is not known. 

The priory of Coldingham possessed the privilege 
of sanctuary ; and a number of crosses were erected 
in various parts of the neighbourhood, probably to 
mark the strict boundaries of the asylum. In a 
wooded hollow called The Dean, near the village, 
is a spring known as " St. Andrew s Well," which 
formerly supplied the priory with water, and is still 
in use.* 

In 1446 the priory contained 2 cups (one gilt, the 
other silvered), a thurible, a cup of tin, and a pair 
of cruets. 

It seems that Mr. Alexander Douglas (1677-1689), 
the previous Episcopalian incumbent, who had 
retired with a considerable number of parishioners 
to worship in a barn near the church, carried off, 
along with other things, the communion plate. 
Mr. John Dysart, who was inducted minister of the 
parish in place of Mr. Douglas, caused a deputation 
to go to the latter and demand the pulpit Bible, 
communion cups, baptismal basin, the boxes for 
collection, and the box for the communion cloth 
and mortcloth, which he had carried off. It appears 
from the Kirk Session Records that most of these 
articles belonging to the church were retained by 
Mr. Douglas, who resisted all appeals. 

There are two silver cups, engraved "The 
money for buying this was left as a legacy by John 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hint. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



62 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Smith of Smithfield, and payed by John Edington, 
his executor and successor, on fifteenth of February, 
1728." 

The following is a list of the churches and chapels 
held by the priory in the county : 

The chapels of St. Ebba (on St. Abb s Head), 
Eyemouth, Ayton, and St. Nicholas, West Reston. 
The churches of Lamberton, Fishwick, Swinton, 
Edrorn (with its chapels of Kimmergharae, East 
Nisbet, Blackadder, and Earlston). Aldcambus, with 
its hospital. Also the chapels of Naithansthirn and 
Newton, subordinate to Ednam. These were sub 
sequently acquired by Kelso Abbey.* 

Several floor-crosses and other sepulchral slabs 
have been collected, and placed against the exterior 
of the south transept wall. On one of these a 
portion only of the inscription is decipherable, and 
reads thus : 

" HEIR WIS BVRIED 
JAMES AND MARGART 
CHISOMME 1562." 

In the churchyard, which is large, there is nothing 
very remarkable. 

On a very small stone are these words : 

" Here lyes the corps of Jean Bookless who departed this life 
the 19 Awgwst 1741 aged 67 at, years." 

The following pathetic and simple words appear 
on the bottom of a modern stone erected to the 
memory of a young wife : 

" I will follow the wife of my youth." 
* Mr. Ferguson. IJint. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



COLDINGHAM. 63 

On a very small stone is this inscription : 

Here . lyes . the . corps . of . James . Alensha . who . deperted 
this . life . September . 24 . 1727." 

The following initials and dates appear on a very 
small stone : 

" I. P. 

1661. 

I. H. 

1670." 

During the reparations already referred to, the 
tombs of two of the priors ^Ernaldus and 
Radulphus who presided over the establishment 
about the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
were found within a square apartment, near the 
west end of the building. The two large slabs are 
now carefully protected by means of a strong iron 
grating over the top, and are thus inscribed : 

" ^Ernaldus prior 1202." 
" Radvlphvs prior de Coldingham 1209." 

These lines appear on a modern tombstone : 

" All ye who read my epitaph, 
Seek ye the Lord and put not off; 
Remember, when my grave you see, 
I once did live like unto thee ; 
But soon by death was snatched away 
In bloom of youth and no decay ; 
Oh ! for eternity prepare, 
And make a future life thy care." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Coldingham since 1567 : 

William Lamb 1567 to 1583. 
David Hume 1585 to 1592. 
Alexander Watsone, M. A. 1593 to 1614. 
William Douglas 1615 to 1621. 



64 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Christopher Knoues, M.A. 1622 to 1641. 

Samuel Douglas, M. A. 1641 to 1652. 

David Hume, M. A. 1658 to 1662.* 

Alexander Hewat, M. A. 1665 to 1665 (a few months). 

Andrew Bannatin, M. A. 1665 to 1668. 

Alexander Douglas, M. A. 1677 to 1689. 

John Dysart, M. A. 1694 to 1732. t 

Robert Brydone, M.A. (colleague and successor) 1725 to 1761. 

John Jolly 1761 to 1792. 

James Landell-1793 to 1827. 

James Home Robertson 1827 to 1847. 

David Munro (present incumbent) 1847. 

A chapel-of-ease was erected at Renton by the 
Presbytery, 14th and opened 26th January, 1794. 
The following were ministers : 

Joseph Bethune 1794 to 1799. 
George Marshall 1800 to 1811. 

At HOUND WOOD there is a church which was 
built and opened in 1836, constituted as a quoad 
sacra parish by the General Assembly, 30th May, 
1836, and 28th May, 1838, and erected as such by the 

* This David Hume joined the field preachers in 1679 ; he 
was present at the battle of Both well Brig same year, and, being 
obliged to flee, took refuge in Holland, and was one of the 
numerous body declared fugitive 5th May, 1684. He returned, 
however, and died in Edinburgh, 13th Dec., 1687, aged about 62 ; 
and has been represented as " of known zeal, piety, courage, and 
ability." Scott s Fasti Ecclesice Scoticance. 

t Dysart was a man of bold and determined character, ever 
ready to defend the Presbyterian cause, and zealous in maintain 
ing what he considered the interests of the Church. The great 
body of the parishioners being of the Episcopal persuasion, it 
was found necessary to call a military force to prevent a riot at 
the settlement, and such was his dread of opposition that, for a 
time, he was obliged to carry pistols with him to the pulpit, 
which he laid down openly on each side of him. Scott s Fasti 
Ecclesice Scoticance. 



COLDTNGHAM. 65 

Court of Teinds, 9th July, 1851. The building is 
a plain quadrangular structure of red stone, with a 
square belfry tower engaged in the front elevation, 
and terminating in a low pyramidal slated roof. 
It came in place of the old chapel-of-ease at Renton 
already referred to. 

The list of ministers is as follows : 

John Duncan 1836 to 1837. 

John Robertson 1838 to 1843. 

David Drummond 1851 to 1879. 

George A. Bisset (present incumbent) 1880. 

There is a United Presbyterian Church in the 
village of Coldingham. It was originally built in 
1793, and was rebuilt in 1870. The present minister 
is Andrew Brodie Robertson, settled in 1856. 

At St. Abb s, in this parish, there is a Free 
Church a neat edifice of simple Norman style ; 
quite a model little church ; erected in 1892. The 
present minister is John S. Allison, settled in 1895. 

At Grant s-House, also in this parish, there is 
a Free Church, erected in 1888. (Formerly the 
congregation worshipped at Houndwood.) The 
building is neat, commodious, and, inside, ex 
ceedingly comfortable. The present minister is 
James Marshall, M.A., B.D., settled (first at Hound- 
wood) in 1882. 

There is also a Free Church at Reston. erected in 
1880. It is in the Early English style, neat and 
ornamental. The present minister is William Hall 
Telford, settled in 1881. 



66 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



Col&stream. 

IN this parish in early times a Cistercian convent 
or priory stood near the junction of the Leet with 
the Tweed. It was founded and dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary by Cospatrick, 3d Earl of Dunbar, in 
the year 1165. In his foundation charter, Earl 
Cospatrick associated himself with Deider, his 
countess, and personally bestowed on the nuns a 
carucate that is, from sixty to a hundred acres 
of the Hirsel, and the church of that place. The 
Hirsel, which is situated about a mile to the north 
west of Coldstream, forms the beautiful seat of the 
Earl of Home. 

The following is an abstract of charter granted 
about the year 1232, which shows the relation of 
Hirsel church to Coldstream Priory : " To all the 
sons of Holy Mother Church, William, the son of 
Patrick, greeting. At the bidding of charity has 
given and granted to God, and the Church of St. 
Mary of Caldstrem, and the nuns there serving 
God, the Church Herissille, with its lands, tithes, 
and offerings, and all other just pertinents of said 
church, in free, pure, and perpetual alms, as freely 
and quietly as the charters of Earl Cospatrick, and 
Earl Waldeve, and Patrick, the grantor s father, 
witness and confirm, and as any church in the 
kingdom of Scotland is more freely, quietly, 
honourably, and fully held." 



COLDSTREAM. 67 

Another church belonging to the Priory was that 
of Lennel (the name of the parish prior to 1716). 
From another old charter, granted near the begin 
ning of the 13th century, we learn that "Earl 
Patrick of Dunbar confirms to God and the holy 
nuns of Caldestrem, the whole church of Laynall 
with all its pertinents, to be held in perpetual alms, 
as the charters of his predecessors Earl Cospatrick 
and Earl Waldeve, his father, attest." (The Earl 
Patrick here referred to died in 1232.) 

During the Border wars this convent suffered 
severely. Edward I. on his way northward en 
camped at Coldstrearn with 5000 horse and 30,000 
infantry. On this occasion the priory and its 
orchard suffered great damage, for which, however, 
compensation was demanded and granted. 

In the year 1472, on 6th June, James III. con 
firmed the charter under the great seal granted at 
Perth on 23d July, 1459, whereby his royal prede 
cessor, James II., bestowed on the convent of 
Coldstream the lands of Simpryn (Simprim). 

In 1515 two years after the battle of Flodden 
Lord Dacre thus wrote to Margaret the Queen 
mother of Scotland, who had besought his protection 
in behalf of the prioress (Isabella of Coldstream) 
and sisters: "Madam, In my mooste humble wise 
I recommended me unto your grace. And where 
it hath pleased you too desire me for your sake too 
cause all Englishmen too forbere to doo any hurtis 
unto the priores of Coldstreme and hir hous, rnadame, 
I shall with good will obserue yourcommaundemente 
and pleasure, she and hers doing ner supporting any 
too doo hurte to the king, my sourain lord s subiects, 



68 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

ner keeping ner receiving into hir hous any Scottishe- 
men of war." 

The last ruler of the convent was Dame Janet 
Hoppringill, during whose tenure of office the 
structure was burned to the ground by the Earl of 
Hertford in 1545.* 

Not a vestige of the convent buildings is now 
remaining. The pomarium of the priory is now 
represented by a large orchard occupying a con 
siderable space at the south-west side of the town 
sloping down towards the site of the buildings.f 
Tradition states that many of the Scottish nobles 
who fell at Flodden were brought to Coldstream 
and interred in the priory burial-ground. In 1834, 
during excavations at the place, many human bones 
and a stone coffin were exposed to view. 

There is a tradition to the effect that the bell of 
the convent was carried by the English to Durham, 
and suspended in the cathedral of that city. 



* The election of Dame Janet Hoppringill as prioress was an 
interesting and important ceremony : the nuns having assembled 
for the purpose "directed their wishes, with one voice and one 
breath, upon Dame Janet Hoppringill, a veiled and professed 
sister of their house, marked out by her virtues as the person 
most fit, worthy, and qualified, circumspect in spirituals and 
temporals, and for the rule and governance of their said 
monastery and its revenues, most able, expert, and industrious, 
arrived at lawful age, born of lawful matrimony and of honour 
able parents, above others expert in the rule and religion of the 
monastery, and elected the said Dame Janet as their prioress 
and pastress of their souls." Extract from the Instrument cf 
Election of Dame Janet Hoppringill as prioress of Coldstream. 

t In 1621 it was spoken of as the " litle croft, callit the lyttle 
orchard," and in 1640 it was styled the "little croft called the 
pomarium." 



COLDSTREAM. 69 

The church or chapel of Hirsel had disappeared 
as early as 1627, though the churchyard was then 
in use. 

The church of Bassendean also belonged to the 
monastery of Coldstream. It is noticed at consider 
able length under WESTRUTHER, to which parish it 
now belongs. 

The ancient church of LENNEL stood on the 
north bank of the Tweed, rather more than a mile to 
the north-east of Coldstream. The west gable, por 
tions of the north and south walls of the nave, and 
indications of a narrower chancel are still extant. 
The nave has been 54 feet long by 22^ feet wide 
externally, but the dimensions of the chancel cannot 
be satisfactorily determined. On the south side of 
the nave are traces of a doorway, with a segmental 
head and slightly moulded jambs, and of two 
hollow-chamfered windows, which have opened to 
the interior with a wide lateral splay, and a segmental 
rear-arch. The west elevation has evidently under 
gone alterations at a late period. It is crow-stepped, 
and is pierced by two rectangular windows, both 
plainly bevelled on the outside ; the upper, 3^ 
feet by 22 inches ; the lower, which is blocked, 
26 inches by 18 inches. Such details as are still 
visible are meagre in the extreme, but some of 
them can hardly be later than the close of the 12th 
century.* 

An old hand-bell which had been rung for funerals 
and other purposes, and which was afterwards used 



* Mr Ferguson: Hint. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



70 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

in Coldstream, is still in existence, and bears the 
following inscription : 

"Tms is LENDON HAND BEL." 

The following extract from an official Report 
shows the state of ecclesiastical affairs in this parish 
in the year 1627 : 

" The said parish conteins thrie myllis in length 
and two myllis in breadth the eistmost toune of the 
parish is distant from the said kirk ane myll and 
half myll the westmost ane myll and half myll the 
northmost toune two mylles. Ther is no toune of 
the said parish on the south the kirk standing vpon 
the river of Tueid. 

" As for any vnion of the said kirk to any other, 
or of any other kirk to it we know none. 

" The kirk of Lendell is ane kirk of the Pryorie 
of Cauldstreame it was of old bot ane chappell callit 
Lendell chappell and now it is the parish kirk be 
reasone of the most commodious situation for the 
parish. As for cheplanries we know none to be 
within our said parish bot ther hes bein of old neir 
to the Hirsell ather chappell or kirk quhair of ther 
is onlie restand ane kirk yaird callit Granton kirk- 
yard possessit be the Earle of Home and we know 
no benefeit belonging thairto. 

" Written out and signed at Lenddell kirk the 
tuentie day of Maij the yeir of God I m - VI C - tuentie 
sevin yeiris." 

The present church of this parish stands about 
the centre of the town of Coldstream. It was 
erected in 1716, renovated and repaired in 1798. 



COLDSTREAM. 71 

It is commodious and comfortable, but, exterior and 
interior alike, severely plain. 

Surrounding the ruined church at Lennel is the 
old churchyard, which contains some interesting 
stones. 

On a medium-sized stone the latter part of the 
inscription only is decipherable, and runs thus : 

" To Lavrance Bell in Nevcastell vho departed this lyfe the 
9 of 1689 December." 

A very small peculiarly shaped stone bears along 
its upper curved surface, in letters almost com 
pletely obliterated, the following : 

"Heir lyes . . . Wleken (?) who dep . . . 1655." 

On the sides of this stone are engraved the death s 
head, hour glass, and cross bones. 

Another similarly shaped stone is thus inscribed : 

" Heir . lyes . Robrt . Paterson . vho . dp . the . 15 . April 
1664." 

On a small, plain stone are the words : 

" Here lyeth the body of John Kers who deceased the 6 day 
of October 1694 his age 32 years." 

A large horizontal stone is inscribed in large 
striking characters : 

" I. F. 

1658. 
B. B." 

These words appear on a small stone : 

" Here lyes the body of John don vho departed this life vpon 
the 2 day of nover 1699. . His age 56 years." 



72 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

A medium-sized stone, which is sadly mutilated 
and defaced, the upper part being broken off, is 
inscribed thus : 

" James Wa . . sone to Alixander Watsone dyir in Calstream 
he died the 4 of July 1686. 

" Jean Watsone died 28 of May 1683." 

The inscription on a large horizontal stone runs 
thus : 

" Here on the sowth side of this stone at a small distance lyes 
the body of John Bell of Rwtch ester rig who dy d Jwne 1st A.D. 
1729 aged 55 years. On his left hand lyes Margt. Donaldson his 
spowse who dy d Jan wary 4th A.D. 1743 aged 77 years. On his 
right hand lyes the body of Elizabeth Wrie relect of Charles Bell 
of Craigfoody who dy d Septr. llth A.D. 1742 aged 62 years. 
Wnder this stone lyes the body of George Bell of Rwtchester Rige 
who dy d October 4th A.D. 1742 aged 36 years." 

On the bottom of this stone are the words : 

" His father and his mother dear his brothers and his sisters 
were buried here."* 

An elegant stone is erected to the memory of 
the Rev. Adam Thomson, D.D., minister of the 
United Presbyterian Church, Coldstream ; died 23d 
February, 1861. His many excellent qualities are 



* I am indebted to the Rev. Robert Paul, Dollar (formerly of 
Coldstream), for the following note, as well as for copies of 
several of the inscriptions in Lennel churchyard as given in the 
text, and copied by him at a time when they were more easily 
deciphered : 

" In 1801, John Bell and Betty Bell of Berwick the repre 
sentatives of the family thus commemorated gave a donation of 
500 to the minister and kirk-session of Coldstream for the 
education of the poor of the parish, to which they added 300 in 
1803 for clothing for the children of the poor on leaving school." 



COLDSTREAM. 73 

set forth in a lengthy inscription, which concludes 
thus : 

" The great success of his career was the abolition of the 
Scottish Bible monopoly, along with what he did and suffered for 
the cheapening and circulation of the holy book." 

A son thus comments on his mother : 

" I owe thee much : thou hast deserved from me 
Far, far beyond what I can ever pay ; 
Oft have I proved the labours of thy love 
And the warm efforts of thy gentle heart." 

By these touching lines David limes celebrates 
his wife : 

" Clos d, ever clos d those speaking eyes, 

Where sweetness beam d, where candour shone ; 
And silent that heart-thrilling voice, 

Which music lov d and call d her own. 
Alas ! before the violet bloom d, 

Before the snows of winter fled, 
Too certain fate my hopes consum d, 

For she was numbered with the dead." 

William Beloe laments his wife thus : 

" Oft to this spot 
Will memory fondly turn, 
And love s pure flame 
Still unextinguished burn 
Within their breasts, who 
Here doth mourn their loss, 
But nails their sorrows 
To a Saviour s cross. 
Oh ! precious hope ! 
By faith to mortals given, 
That loving hearts which 
Hath on earth been riven, 
May through the same 
Dear Saviour s pleading love 
Again unite in realms 
Of bliss above." 



74 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On an upright stone in the south-east portion of 
the churchyard : 

" To the memory of John Hume, Tenant in Easter Bankhead 
of Eccles, who was born at Easter Coldstream on 7th June, 1716, 
and interred here in 1785 ; and to several of his immediate 
ancestors also interred here, who suffered severely during the 
period between 1638 and 1689 in the noble effort to preserve 
unimpaired the civil and religious liberties of Scotland against 
Prelatic oppression ; one having fallen in a field of conflict in 
this neighbourhood, while others experienced persecution and 
confiscation of property. Erected by his grandson, John Hume 
of the Register House, Edinburgh, 1837." 

On a mural tablet, on the inner (eastern) side of 
the western gable of the old church, in the lower 
part of the watch-house, now used as the sexton s 
tool-house : 

" Here lies the body of Robert Blackie, late surgeon in Cold- 
stream, who died July 4th, 1780, aged 36 years. 

" No private interest did his soul invade, 
No foe he injured, no kind friend betrayed ; 
He followed virtue as his truest guide, 
Lived like a Christian, like a Christian died. 

This monument was erected by his widow, Margaret Denholm, 
in remembrance of him." 

On a stone, much sunk in the ground, in the 
south-east part of the churchyard, is this inscrip 
tion : 

" This ston is erected by Vilam Shirif . in . remmemberance . 
of . his . davter . Margret . Shirif . vho . departed . this . lyf . 
in . the . year . of . God . 1698." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Coldstream since 1576 : 



COLDSTREAM. 75 

John Clapperton 1576 to 1617. 

Francis Hepburne, M. A. 1617 to 1632. 

Thomas Hepburn, M. A. 1641 to 1642. 

James Home 1642 to 1653. 

Wm. Johnstone, M.A. 1659 to 1662. 

David Robertson, M. A. 1663 to 1685. 

Thomas Blair, M. A. 1686 to 1689. 

James Armstrang 1690 to 1694. 

John Pow, M.A. 1694 to 1735. 

William Wilsone, M. A. 1735 to 1777. 

James Bell 1778 to 1794. 

Robert Scott 1795 to 1830. 

Thomas Smith Goldie 1830 to 1859. 

Archibald Nisbett (present incumbent) 1860. 

There is a handsome Free Church here, erected 
in 1847, enlarged and improved in 1891. Its square 
tower, 80 feet high, is one of the conspicuous 
features of the town, being visible on all sides from 
a great distance. The present minister is James 
Rutherford, B.D., settled in 1887. 

The East United Presbyterian Church was erected 
in 1826. It is a large building of the old tea- 
caddy shape and seated for 800. The present 
minister is John Lockhart Elder, M.A., settled in 
1882. 

The West United Presbyterian Church was built 
in 1806. It is a large square building, exceed 
ingly plain and unpretentious. Recent alterations 
have greatly improved the interior in appearance 
and comfort. The present minister is Archibald 
Macaulay Caldwell, settled in 1892. 



76 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



WE have no information as to the origin of the 
church of Cranshaws. Mention is made of it in the 
year 1296, but undoubtedly it existed a consider 
able time before that. Robert de Strivelin, the 
parson of the church of Cranshaws, swore fealty to 
Edward I. in 1296, and, in consequence, had his 
rights restored. The church contained an altar to 
St. Ninian, to whom also, in all probability, it was 
dedicated. 

Alexander Swinton, member of a noted Border 
family, was minister of Cranshaws from 1592 to 
1595. In his time an incident occurred, the memory 
of which is said to be preserved by a mural tablet 
in Cranshaws Parish Church. It is said that one of 
the Stewart kings at the date referred to it must 
have been James VI. being on a visit at Tester, 
rode across the hills to Cranshaws, and attended 
service in the church, when the minister, discon 
certed, it may have been, by the royal presence, 
omitted the usual prayer for His Majesty. The 
story goes on to say that, in order to keep him and 
his successors in all time coming mindful of their 
duty in this respect, the King caused the tablet 
referred to, bearing the royal arms, to be placed 
opposite the pulpit. There it remained, till removed 



CRANSHAWS. 77 

to a similar position in the existing church, when 
the old one was taken down.* 

Only a small fragment of the old church remains 
in the shape of the foundations and part of the east 
wall. The church has been of a lengthy, oblong 
shape, with a vestry at the west end. There were 
two doors to the south with flagged entries. A 
portion of the roughly-built remains (left by the 
heritors to show the substantiality of the original 
walls when compelled to erect a new kirk), which 
had beneath it a still older wall. The floor was 
cleared out, and a large number of crania placed 
together were come upon underneath. Two crania 
of extraordinary proportions were connected with 
some gigantic thigh bones. Five oyster shells were 
turned out, some coffin handles, and some slips of 
zinc or lead for enclosing window glass. f 

The old burial-ground, now in disuse, surround 
ing the old church, is in a most sadly dilapidated 
condition tombstones lying about in the utmost 
confusion and disorder. 

On a very small, thick stone are these words 
along the top : 

" Alexander Foord 1665." 

On the face of the stone on one side are rather 
neatly carved an hour glass and hand bell, the 
latter probably emblematical of the office of sexton. 
Another small stone is inscribed thus : 

"Here lyes John Dodd who departed this life Decembr 9 
1717." 

* The Swintom of that Ilk. 
t Dr. Hardy. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



78 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On a similar stone are the words : 

" Here lyeth John Hog died Nov. 1681 & John Hog he died 
in Avgvst 1680 Thomas Hog 1686." 

A small stone, much broken and lying flat on the 
ground, has these words inscribed on a small oval 
panel : 

" Here lyes the corps of Janet Fortune who died Jan ye 8 
1728 age 12 years." 

A large, handsome stone, whose inscription is 
quite illegible, bears some beautiful and highly 
ornamental carvings the death s head, cross bones, 
hour glass, and spade. 

The present church is situated a considerable 
distance from the ancient building. It was erected 
in 1739. Half-a-century ago it was described as 
probably in a worse state of repair than any 
Established Church in the south of Scotland. In 
fact, both church and manse were in a much worse 
state than most hunting stables in the county.* 

In the north interior wall of the church is inserted 
a mural tablet, on which are sculptured the arms 
of the Royal House of Stuart, the interesting tradi 
tion concerning which has already been given. 
The church, both exterior and interior, is exceed 
ingly plain. 

In the modern churchyard there is nothing of 
interest; the stones, about a dozen in all, being 
comparatively modern. 



fleiv Statistical A ccount. 



CRANSHAWS. 79 

The following is a list of the ministers of Cran- 
shaws since 1572 : 

Matthew Liddell 1572 to 1585. 

Alexander Swyntoun, M. A. 1593 to 1595. 

John Hepburne, M.A. 1596 to 1611. 

Mungo Daliell, M. A. 1615 to 1652. 

John Foord 1655 to 1674. 

John Suinton, M. A. 1674 to 1706. 

John Campbel, M. A. 1706 to 1759. 

Richard Scot- -1759 to 1761. 

Ralph Drumraond - 1762 to 1784. 

George Drummond 1785 to 1792. 

Alexander Johnston 1792 to 1800. 

David Tod, M. A. 1801 to 1813. 

James Hope Sibbald 1813 to 1853. 

William Menzies Hutton, M.A. 1853 to 1876. 

James Forbes 1876 to 1879. 

R. Bridges Smith (present incumbent) 1879. 



80 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



2) u n 6* 

No existing records give us any information as 
to when the original church of Duns was erected. 
That a church did exist here in early times 
probably about the middle of the twelfth century- 
is certain ; beyond this we know nothing. 

Mention is made of the church in the year 1296 
when Henry de Lematon, rector of Duns, took the 
oath of allegiance to Edward I. at Berwick. 

In the reign of David II. (1329-1370), Patrick, 
Earl of Dunbar, when he founded the collegiate 
church of Dunbar, annexed to it the church of 
Duns as one of its prebends.* 

It is probable that the old church was repaired 
in the year 1572, as that date was carved in front 
of the burgess loft in the old building. Not a 
vestige, however, of this original structure remains, 
the last of it having been removed in 1874. 

After the Reformation the chancel seems to have 
been converted into a burial-aisle by the Wedder- 
burn family, the north and south transepts being 
simultaneously appropriated for the same purpose 
by the proprietors of Duns Castle and Manderston 
respectively. The two transepts, with the nave, 
which had been repaired and fitted up for Presby- 

* Chalmers Caledonia. 



DUNS. 81 

terian worship, were wholly demolished in the 
operations of 1790; but the Wedderburn aisle 
remained until 1874, when, as already stated, it 
was removed, at the instigation of the minister of 
the parish, in the course of some improvements 
which were being carried out on the churchyard. 
A stone coffin, found in excavating a grave within 
the church in 1736, was removed in 1790 to the 
rnanse, where it was utilised for many years as a 
watering trough, and finally destroyed by the 
minister about 1830. Such was the manner in 
which the antiquities of the parish were dealt with 
by those who might have been expected to take 
the chief interest in their preservation.* 

Near the farm steading of Chapel, and a little to 
the south of it, about three miles north-west of 
Duns, stood at one time a chapel, which was dedi 
cated to St. Mary Magdalene.f The last vestige of 
this structure was dug up and removed in 1808. 
The building was rectangular in form, and ex 
ceedingly plain, possessing no features of architec 
tural interest. A graveyard surrounded the chapel, 
and a number of old tombstones lay scattered about 
at the period above mentioned, but these have also 
entirely disappeared. 

In the Papal Taxation Roll of Churches and 
Monasteries in Scotland, drawn up in the early part 
of the reign of Edward I., mention is made of a 
hospital called "Bona Hospitalis de Duns," the value 
of which is returned at LXVIII^ Nothing is known 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Her. Nat. Club, 1890. 
t Jtetourx, Berwickshire. 

F 



82 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

of either its site or history. The chapel above 
described may have been connected with it ; but 
this is a pure conjecture, deriving, however, some 
probability from the fact that St. Mary Magdalene, 
to whom the chapel was dedicated, was the 
patron saint of numerous hospitals throughout the 
country.* 

In the churchyard, on the site of the chancel of 
the old church, is the private burial-ground of the 
Homes of Wedderburn. The first of that family 
was buried here in 1470. In the year 1608 an aisle 
was erected upon it; on the lintel of its front 
entrance is the inscription : 

" Death cannot sinder S. G. H. D. I. H. 1608. 

(These initials signify Sir George Home. Dame 
Isabell Home.) 

" Home of Wedderburn Burying ground. Formerly covered 
by a vault. The old stones, Here preserved, were over the 
entrance door, Having been erected by Sir George Home in 1608. 
Repaired MDCC LXiirp-H." 

A small, peculiarly-shaped stone with the death s 
head in the centre is inscribed : 

" Here lyes the Race of Ancrum. William Ancrum merchant 
Duns died 1691 Memento mori." 

Another small stone has these beautiful lines : 

" Here lies the only comfort of my life, 
The best of husbands to a wife. 
Great was my loss for his eternal gain, 
And hope in Christ that we shall meet again." 



* Mr. Ferguson. -Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 
Letters, etc. The hospital is also mentioned in Bayamund s Roll. 



DUNS. 83 

In the following there is sound logic as well as 
good gospel truth : 

" Beneath this stone three infants lie, 

Say, are they lost or saved ? 
If death s by sin, they sinned, for they are here ; 
If heaven s by works, in heaven they can t appear. 
Revere the sacred page, the knot s untied 
They died, for Adam sinned ; they live, for Jesus died." 

The present church is a handsome modern struc 
ture with an elegant tower, in the front of which 
there is an inscription as follows : 

" Erected 1790. Destroyed by fire 1879. Restored 1880." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Duns since 1568 : 

John Young 1568 to 1569. 

James Bennet 1581 to 1582. 

Patrick Gaittis 1582 to 1584. After interval of 

suspension continued to 1611. 
James Gaittis -1607 to 1608. 
John Weemse, M. A. 1613 to 1636. 
Andrew Rollo, M. A. 1637 to 1649. 
Andrew Fairfull, M. A. 1652 to 1661. 
Andrew Collace, M. A. 1663 to 1664. 
William Gray 1666 to 1689. 
Alexander Golden, M. A. 1693 to 1700. 
Laurence Johnstone, M.A. 1703 to 1736. 
Roger Moodie, M. A. 1739 to 1748. 
Adam Dickson, M. A. 1750 to 1769. 
Robert Bowmaker 1769 to 1797. 
George Cunningham 1797 to 1847. 
Henry Scott Riddell 1843 to 1862. 
John Macleod 1862 to 1875. 
Robert Stewart, D.D. 1875 to 1877. 
William Menzies 1878 to 1881. 
William David Herald, M. A. 1882. 

The Free Church here was built in 1838 (as a 



84 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

quoad sacra church). The building is in the Gothic 
style, with a solid square tower. The present 
minister is John Miller, M.A., settled in 1868. 

The South United Presbyterian Church was built 
in 1851, on the site of an older one erected in 1752. 
It is in the Gothic style, but exceedingly plain. 
The present minister is James Eason, M.A., settled 
in 1895. 

The East United Presbyterian Church is a plain 
square structure of the meeting-house type, seated 
for about 500 persons. The congregation (Anti- 
Burgher) was founded in 1743. The present 
minister is Alexander John Blair Paterson, M.A., 
settled as colleague and successor to Rev. Dr. 
Ritchie in 1891. 

Christ Church (Scotch Episcopal) is a neat edifice 
in the Norman style. In 1852 the Episcopal form 
of worship was resumed in the town. Two years 
later Christ Church was consecrated by the Bishop 
of Edinburgh. The present rector is James Beale, 
settled in 1878. 



EARLSTON. 85 



)6arl0ton* 

THE church of Earlston dates from the beginning 
of the twelfth century, and was at first a chapel 
dependent on Ederham (Edrom). In the reign of 
David I. (1124-1153) Walter de Lindsay granted 
the "Church of Ersildun" to the monks of Kelso, 
who, in 1171, exchanged it with the monks of 
Coldingham for the church of Gordon.* 

It seems that in early times a HOSPITAL existed 
here, but only very slight reference is made to it 
in old records, from which we may infer that it was 
not of much importance, and it is doubtful if it 
survived till the Reformation. 

The ancient church was demolished and another 
erected close to its site about the year 1736. This 
latter has, in its turn, given place to the present 
handsome church, erected in 1890. Built into its 
south wall is an old stone, inscribed thus : 

" AULD : RYMRS : 

RACE : 

LYEES : IN : THIS : 
PLACE :" 

Tradition says the stone was transferred from the 
old church (i.e., the building which existed previous 
to that of 1736). In 1782 the ancient inscription 
was defaced by some senseless fellow in a drunken 

* Chalmers Caledonia. 



86 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

frolic, but the clergyman compelled him to replace 
it in the same words as before. The effaced char 
acters were very ancient ; the present are quite 
modern.* 

Near the Rhymer s stone is another large and 
elaborately carved stone, with several initials and 
inscription as follows : 



Below these are carved cross bones, death s head, 
and two hour glasses, followed by 

"IB WB MH 

" Hie etiam jacet David Brown de Park. Qui obiit 5 Decem 
aetatis 60. Hie Quoq jacet Annabella areskina. Uxor Da. BR. 
De Park Annos 36. Obiit april 6 anno 1681 Aetatis 70. 

" Here lyes the body of David Brown of Park who died 
September 25th 1754 aged 63, in vita dilectus Morteque 
deploratus. 

" Also John Brown of Park his son who died Feby. 3 1813 
aged 85." 

Near the above stone is another, thus inscribed: 

" Here lyes Master William Brown minister at Nen thorn who 
deceased the 17 day of November 1692 his age 49 ; Omnem crede 
Diem tibi deluxisse supremum." 

The church, which occupies a commanding posi- 
tiou, was erected on the site of the former church 
in 1891-1892. It is in the early Gothic style, with 
a fine tower, and seated for about 700. The open 
timber-ceiled roof is very effective, arid the whole 
interior produces a singularly pleasing impression 
of reposeful harmony and beauty. 

* Mr. Tait. Hut. Ber. Nat. Club, 166. 



EARLSTON. 87 

There are several seventeenth century stones in 
the churchyard. 

The following quaint inscription appears on a 
small stone : 

" W B M E 1682 
" Althovg niy body in the dvst 
A litel seson do remen even 
Christ yU rese it vp agene." 

On another small stone : 

" Here lys James Aderston in Fans who died March 5 1668 
. . . 86 years. 

"also Betty and William Brak children to Thomas Brak 
weaver in Fans." 

On a similar stone : 

" Here lyees Thomas Hardie tenent in Hespisshaw who died 
June 6 1719 aged 64 years." 

On an old red stone, whose date is illegible, are 
the words : 

" Time how short 
Eternity how long." 

On a stone with date 1782 : 

" My Saviour did the grave perfume 
In which my dust shall rest 
In hope till I my form resume 
And be completely blest." 

The following lines appear on a small stone : 

" Times glas with rapid course doth run 

And makes no stop nor stay 
All mortal men prepare should then 
Death s sumons to obey." 



88 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

A small stone is inscribed : 

"Heir lys Johne Broun in Fans Alies Golid [?] who died 
4 Sapril 1681 his age 74."* 

The communion plate consists of four silver cups. 
Two bear the inscription : " For the church of 



* I am indebted to the Rev. W. S. Crockett, Tweedsmuir, for 
most of the inscriptions on stones in Earlston churchyard, some 
of which are now quite illegible. The following additional 
inscriptions and notes are also kindly supplied by him : 

Within the grounds of Carolside, the beautiful seat of Lord 
and Lady Reay, is a large flat stone with this inscription : 

" This stone is placed by the directions of Alexander Mitchell 
Esq. of Stow to mark the spot which was the ancient burial place 
of the Lauder family." 

Some have thought (continues Mr. Crockett) that this idea of 
Mr. Mitchell s was merely one of his vagaries. But I under 
stand he had good enough reason to believe that where the stone 
was placed had really been a burial-place, and, in all likelihood, 
that of the family referred to. 

At Mellerstain, in this parish, the burial-place of the Baillie 
family, the following is inscribed on the tomb of Lady Murray 
of Stanhope : 

" Here are deposited the remains of Grisell Baillie of Jervis- 
wood, Lady Murray, whose beauty was adorned with every 
amiable accomplishment, and whose soul was enriched with all 
those valuable qualities which are seldom united in one 
character. 

" In her an uncommon justness of understanding and firmness 
of mind, that supported her under the most severe trials, were 
joined to a constant cheerfulness and sweetness of temper. And 
whilst the strictest principles of religion, honour, and virtue 
governed her own actions, they taught her to look with tender 
ness upon the failings of others. Ever zealous of the service of 
her friends, dutiful and affectionate to her parents, and bestow 
ing the care of a mother upon the children of her sister, whom 
she tenderly loved, and who now, unable sufficiently to express 
what her heart feels, pays this small sorrowful tribute to her 
memory. She died on the 6th of June, 1759, in the sixty-seventh 
year of her age." 



EARLSTON. 89 

Earlstotm. 1760." The other two are similarly 
engraved, but bear no date. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Earlston since 1586 : 

James Daes 1586 to 1633. 

James Daes, M. A. 1633 to 1659. 

Henry Cokburn, M. A. 1659 to 1660. 

James L>aes, M.A. (reinstated) 1661 to 1673. 

John Hepburne, M. A. 1673 to 1687. 

John Anderson, M.A. 1687 to 1691. 

George Johnston, M. A. 1694 to 1702. 

John Gowdie, M.A. 1704 to 1730. 

John Gowdie 1730 to 1777. 

Laurence Johnston, M.A. 1778 to 1813. 

William Shiels, M. A. 1813 to 1824. 

David William Gordon 1824 to 1868. 

William Mair, M.A., D.D. (present incumbent) 1869. 

There is a United Presbyterian Church here. 
The building is plain externally, but neat and 
comfortable inside. The present minister is Henry 
Brown, M.A., settled in 1891. 



90 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



j c c I e 6, 

A CHURCH and nunnery existed here in the early 
part of the twelfth century. Some authorities have 
contended that a convent existed at Eccles at a 
much earlier date, and that it was founded a second 
time at the above-mentioned period. There is no 
evidence, however, to bear out this contention. 

The munificent Cospatrick, who founded Cold- 
stream, planted a colony of Cistercian nuns at 
Eccles in 1156, where he endowed a convent, which 
he consecrated to the Virgin Mary. The nuns of 
Eccles were at length doomed to feel the sad effects 
of the disastrous events of the Scottish annals. 
In 1294-5 Edward I. granted them a protection. 
In 1296, when the bravest men in Scotland sub 
mitted to that overpowering prince, Ada de 
Eraser, the prioress, with her convent, swore fealty 
to Edward I., who, in consequence, ordered their 
estates to be returned to them. Edward II. granted 
them his protection in 1316-17. After the fatal 
conflict of Halidon Hill in 1333, the prioress and her 
nuns found it again necessary to submit to the 
conqueror; and Edward III. gave them a protection 
for the house, their people, their lands, and their 
revenues. In 1523 the chiefs of this nunnery acted 
the unworthy part of spies for the Earl of Surrey, 
by informing the English general of the prepara- 



ECCLES. 91 

tions of the Regent Albany for an invasion of 
England. Albany was thus obliged to raise the 
siege of Wark, and to retreat across the Tweed to 
Eccles ; and being here falsely informed of the 
approach of the English army, he decamped at 
midnight, and hastened to Lauder. In 1544, the 
prioress and her nuns were involved in the terrible 
effects of Edward IV. s courtship of Mary Stewart. 
On the 27th of September, 1544, the English took 
the church of Eccles by assault, when they slew 
within the abbey and town 80 persons, and burnt 
the abbey and spoiled the village. In September, 
1545, the abbey and town of Eccles were again 
plundered and burnt by the unfeeling Hertford. 
Marion Hamilton, the prioress, conveyed to Alexander 
Hamilton, her relation, the village and lands of 
Eccles; and this unworthy transfer was confirmed 
by Mary Stewart on the llth May, 1567. James VI. 
conferred the estates of this convent on Sir George 
Home, who was created Lord Home of Berwick 
on the 7th of July, 1604, and Earl of Dunbar 
in March, 1605.* 

The nunnery appears to have been nearly a 
square, consisting of about six acres, extending 
rather further to the south and west than to the 
east and north. 

Some confused ruins of this monastic edifice are 
to be seen at the west side of the churchyard, and 
behind the mansion of Eccles House, the east wall 
of which is evidently ancient, and doubtless formed 
part of the old nunnery. Two vaulted cells, dis- 

* Chalmers Caledonia. 



92 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

playing on the external side of the north wall a 
blocked, round-headed window, and a small frag 
ment of string-course, with the billet ornament 
much wasted, are the most noteworthy portions of 
the remains. A ruinous vault on the north side of 
the church is also extant. It has two doorways 
and a round-headed window, all blocked up ; but 
the whole has manifestly undergone considerable 
alteration at no very distant date, and it is almost 
impossible to pronounce with confidence upon its 
primitive features.* 

The burial-ground contiguous to these vaults is 
all paved with fine stories 4 feet beneath the 
surface, which is a clear proof that there have been 
many more cells of a similar kind to the former; 
and as the ground, when turned up, exhibits only 
a mixture of sand, lime, and earth, it appears to be 
nothing but the rubbish of the fallen vaults. It is 
said that the principal entrance to the nunnery was 
from the west, where there was a very spacious 
gate, beautifully sculptured, and adorned with a 
variety of figures. Before the front door of the 
mansion-house of Eccles, a stone coffin was dug 
out, above ti feet long, and covered above with 
flagstones.t 

The church of Eccles seems to have existed some 
time previous to the foundation of the monastery 
in 1156. It was consecrated to St. Cuthbert and 
St. Andrew. While the priory suffered severely in 
1545 at the hands of the Earl of Hertford, the 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 
i The Beauties of Scotland, by Robert Forsyth. 



ECCLES. 93 

church was spared, and remained entire till about 
1774. It was a Gothic building, in the form of a 
cross, vaulted and covered with large flagstones, 
and ornamented with a cross and a very elegant 
steeple. The building might have stood for many 
centuries, and it was with the greatest difficulty it 
was taken down. But as it was too small to 
accommodate the inhabitants, the proprietors of 
the parish took it down at the period above 
mentioned, and built a very handsome modern 
church on the same ground.* 

The building is large and in a good state of 
repair, and shows no signs of decay, though built 
121 years ago. The exterior has much more of 
architectural design than most country churches 
built in the latter half of last century ; but the 
interior is bald and uninteresting, and destitute of 
any single element of beauty or comfort. The 
tower is considered a very good specimen, and the 
superior architectural feature lies chiefly in the 
Norman arches of the windows. 

The inscription on the bell is : 

" Feare God yee people of Eckles 1659 I-R." 

An excavated sandstone, like a spout or drain, 
with a corresponding arched stone above it, used 
in an outhouse, appears to have been part of the 
piscina of the original church. The font, still in 
good preservation, is placed in the garden. The 
bowl is of fine grained sandstone, perforated at the 



Old Statistical Account. 



94 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

bottom, and smoothed on the sides, and measures 
2 ft. 8 in. in diameter.* 

There is preserved in the manse an old hand bell, 
which would probably be used for funerals and such 
like, bearing the following inscription : 

" 2171 SLEKKE . FO . 
HSIRAP EHT ROF ." 

The proper rendering of the above (reading back 
wards) is : 

" For the parish of Ekkels 1712." 

The churchyard has already been referred to. 
It contains some very old stones, many of which 
are so weathered as to render their inscriptions 
quite illegible. 

That on a large horizontal stone reads thus : 

" In memory of William lohnston tenant in Edram Mains 
who died Novr 3rd 1699 aged 50 years and of Betty Morton his 
spouse who died Janry 26th 1721 aged 77 years." 

A small stone, much broken arid defaced, lying 
flat on the ground, and completely overgrown with 
nettles and weeds, is thus inscribed : 

" Here lyes Isabel Mason Spouse to Gesper Aire who died 
12 March 1687 age 28." 

On a very small stone, the upper part of the 
inscription being illegible, are these words: 

" . Wright in Leitholme vho dyed the 
third day of Jvly 1712 aged 78 as also his sone James liethead 
who dyed Ivne 15 day 1712 aged 11 years." 

* Dr. Hardy. Hist. Btr. Nat. Club. 



ECCLES. 95 

Another small stone is inscribed : 

"Here lyes Agnes Wilson spouse to James Mason Tylior in 
over mains who died November 20 1699." 

A handsome monument, surmounted by an 
elaborate capital of well-executed carved work, 
consisting of figures and floral designs, has an 
inscription, part of which is obliterated, which runs 
thus : 

"... Dickson Antonshil died 15th Augt 1690 aged 75. 
" M rs Elizabeth ker his widow died 12th Novf 1691 aged 68." 

At BIRGHAM, on Tweedside, two miles from 
P]ccles, a chapel existed subordinate to the church 
of Eccles, and was dedicated to St. Mary Magda 
lene. The churchyard connected with it is still in 
use for this part of the parish, but no vestige of the 
chapel building can now be traced. 

The stones in the churchyard are much weathered, 
and there is not much of interest in the way of 
inscriptions. 

A small stone with death s head and hour glass 
bears the following initials and date only : 
"B 1) 1683." 

The following inscription on a large horizontal 
stone is almost rubbed out : 

"I W H 1681." 

A very small, neatly-carved stone is inscribed : 
" Here lyes Ednem Dods who died the 29 day of March 1699." 

A similar stone bears the following : 

" Here lyes John Ingles who died the 20 day of Noumber 
1698." 



96 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Another chapel, which was dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, subordinate to Eccles, stood at the 
west end of the present village of LEITHOLM. The 
site of it is marked by an old ash tree, known by 
the name of the " Chapel Tree," which grows on 
the summit of the Chapel Knowe. The adjoining 
ground was used as a place of burial, and is now 
cultivated. Bones and coffins have been occasion 
ally dug up. Alexander, the parson of Leitholm, 
was witness to more than one of the earlier charters 
of Coldstream Priory. 

A third chapel dependent on Eccles stood at 
MERSINGTON, about a mile distant from Leitholm. 
It is supposed to have been dedicated to St. John. 
No vestige of this chapel can now be traced. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Eccles since 1567 : 

Robert Franche-1567 to 1596. 

Alexander Home 1608 to 1617. 

Andrew Melville* 1622 to 1622 (a few months only). 

Henry Blyth, M. A. 1622 to 1635. 

John Home, B.D. 1635 to 1649. 

Samuel Douglas, M. A. 1652 to 1652 (a few months only). 

John Jamieson, M.A. 1654 to 1654 (a few months only). 

Andrew Rutherford, M.A.f 1655 to 1660. 



* Mention is made, under date 1622, of David Home as late 
minister. Probably he filled part at least of the gap between 
1617 and 1622. Scott s Fasti Ecclesice Scoticance. 

*t* On the 24th January, 1655, a letter was laid before the 
Presbytery of Jedburgh "complaining of the unrulie and extra - 
ordinar actings of some of their numbers (Mr. James Ker of 
Abbotrule and Mr. John Scott of Hawick), with others, at the 
pretended admission of Mr. A. R. ," when the Presbytery declared 
against their actings, Mr. John Livingstone of Ancrum dissent 
ing. Scott s Fasti Ecclesice Scoticance. 



ECCLES. 97 

John Cook, M. A. - 1663 to 1687. 

James Balfour, M. A. 1687 to 1691. 

John Lauder 1691 to 1729. 

Matthew Dysart, M. A. 1731 to 1773. 

Adam Murray 1774 to 1794. 

James Baird 1797 to 1805. 

James Thomson, D.D. 1805 to 1855. 

James R. Watson 1848 to 1891. 

John Johnston, B.D. (present incumbent) 1891. 

There is a Free Church in the village of Eccles 
a plain, cruciform structure, erected in 1845. The 
present minister is Duncan Maclean Black, settled 
in 1880. 

In the village of Leitholm, two miles distant, 
there is a United Presbyterian Church. It is a 
plain, barn-like structure, built in 1835. The 
present minister is John Mitchell Watson, settled 
in 1879. 



98 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



16 & r o m. 

THE church of Edrom was granted to St. 
Cuthbert s monks of Coldingham early in the 
twelfth century by Cospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, 
and confirmed by David I. in 1139. The gift of 
Cospatrick was also confirmed in 1150 by Robert, 
the Bishop of St. Andrews, " in presence of the 
Synod of Berwick town." Edrom was a vicarage 
till the Reformation. William De Chatton, " Vicaire 
de Peglise de Ederham," swore fealty to Edward I. 
the 24th of August, 1296. 

There were in former times three chapels subor 
dinate to the church of Edrom within the parish 
Kimmerghame, Blackadder, and East Nisbet and 
outside the parish the distant chapel of Ercheldon 
(Earlston). Of these four chapels no remains can 
now be traced. 

The chapel at EAST NISBET, now called Allanbank, 
stood on the south-west bank of the river Whit- 
adder, about a mile above the village of Allanton. 
The site is near a small field still known as the 
"Chapel Haugh," noteworthy as having been the 
scene of a Covenanter s conventicle and communion 
in the persecuting times. The ruins were taken 
down about the beginning of the present century, 
and the stones used in the erection of a march dyke 
between two co-terminous estates in the neighbour- 



EDROM. 99 

hood. The chapel of KIMMERGHAME stood near the 
Blackadder Water, in a field which to this day bears 
the name of the " Kirk Park," near Kimmerghame 
Mill. This chapel, inclusive of a chantry, was con 
ceded by the prior and convent of Durham, between 
1233 and 1244, to Herbert de Camera. Between 
two and three miles farther down the river, and on 
the same side of it, is the site of the chapel of 
BLACKADDER, every trace of which has likewise 
long since disappeared, although portions of the 
wall which enclosed its burying-ground were stand 
ing within living memory.* 

The original church of Edrom was of ancient 
date. It was undergoing repairs in the years 1327, 
1333, and 1367 respectively. In 1332 the chancel 
was newly thatched with straw. The straw and 
the foreign timber for the work were conveyed from 
Berwick; the timber unloaded from an "Estland" 
ship. Bishop Blackadder, who is reputed to have 
first constructed the Blackadder family vault, was 
bishop of Glasgow from 1484 to 1508, and it was 
repaired by Sir John Home of Blackadder in 1696. 
When the chapel of Earlston acquired parochial 
privileges Edrom was still its mother church. 

There is an interesting and beautiful relic of the 
old original church of Edrom in the shape of a 
rounded arch, which forms part of a burial vault 
of more modern construction. It stands a few 
yards to the west of the present church. It is all 
that remains of the twelfth century edifice, and is 
a fine specimen of the Norman style. Its rounded 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



100 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

shafts, richly carved capitals, and elaborate mould 
ings remind us of that exquisite sculpture work 
which, mouldering and fragmentary as it is, still 
adorns our abbeys. 

This arch has evidently formed the main entrance 
to the earlier structure ; and it is most fortunate 
that it has been preserved, as it is an extremely 
rich and beautiful example, exhibiting, even in its 
present decayed condition, some of the most striking 
and characteristic mouldings of the later Norman 
style. It is composed of three orders : the inter 
mediate one rising from scolloped imposts, whose 
abaci are continued a short distance along the 
wall at each side, and support the outer order; 
and the inner resting on two cylindrical engaged 
shafts, with enriched capitals, which are sur 
mounted by square abaci, chamfered below.* The 
face and soffit of the outer order are embellished 
with a double embattled moulding, round the out 
side of which is a narrow band of delicately-carved 
ornament in very slight relief. The second order 
displays on both face and soffit a lozenge moulding, 
embracing on the chamfer-plane a series of large 
nail-heads, and enriched on the outer face by lines 
of small pellets. The inner order is chevroried on 
the face, the soffit being quite plain. The bases of 
the shafts which support it are about 18 inches 
below the present level of the ground, and each 

* In a foot-note Mr. Ferguson observes "It may perhaps 
admit of doubt whether the shafts and capitals on which the arch 
now rests originally belonged to it. They may have formed part 
of the ancient chancel arch of the church, of which no other 
portions have survived." 



EDROM. 101 

was found, on being exposed, to consist of a round 
member, slightly moulded, and resting on a square 
plinth. The day light measures 11 feet by 4 feet 
8 inches.* 

The appearance of this sculptured doorway in 
the original fabric would, if anything, be enhanced 
by contrast with the other portions of the building, 
for we are informed that as it existed early in the 
fourteenth century, the roof of the chancel was 
thatched with straw.f 

An addition was built to the church on the south 
side by Robert Blackadder, archbishop of Glasgow, 
in the year 1499, of which the greater part is still 
remaining, though it has been seriously tampered 
with during the re-building of the other portions 
of the church. One strong buttress stands out 
prominently as a monument of the archbishop s 
"transeptal chapel," as it was called. A large stone 
built into it is thus inscribed : 

"FOUNDED BY 

ROBERT BLACKADDER, 

ARCHBISHOP OF GLASGOW, 

IN THE YEAR 1499." 

Below this is an old heraldic stone bearing the 
arms of Archbishop Blackadder. It is very much 
defaced, but on one side can, with difficulty, be 
traced the initial letter " R " of his name ; on the 
other we can trace the letter "B" quite distinctly.^ 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Bar. Nat. Club, 1890. 

t Account Rolki of Coldingham Priory, Coldinyham Letter*, tfcc. 
tiurtees Society. 

J These letters R. B. are inscribed on the Blackadder crypt 
of Glasgow Cathedral along with the Archbishop s arms. 



102 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

This buttress is surmounted by an old sundial, though 
it is doubtful if this is as old as 1499. It does not 
seem sufficiently weathered. Another buttress on 
the opposite corner has a stone built into it, in 
scribed thus : 

" REPAIRED BY 

SIR JOHN HOME 

OF BLACKADDER, BARONET, 

IN THE YEAR 1696." 

Below this is another heraldic stone with its char 
acters almost entirely defaced. 

The other parts of the church are comparatively 
modern. It was rebuilt in 1732, and again com 
pletely renovated and added to in the Gothic style 
in the year 1886. 

The interior is light and comfortable. The walls 
are adorned with beautifully-executed scripture 
texts handsomely mounted, and a large number of 
marble slabs, inscribed to the memory of members 
of noted families belonging to the neighbourhood. 

The communion plate consists of two silver cups, 
engraved : 

" Bought by the Kirk-Session of Edrom for the Communion 
Table, 1744." 

In the churchyard which surrounds the church 
there are a few interesting stones, the inscriptions 
on which contain some ludicrous examples of bad 
spelling. 

On a very small stone are these words : 

"Hir lys the corps of Isbl Kilpatrick who died 11 Dismbr 
1712." 



EDROM. 1 03 

On the other side are rudely carved a heart, skull, 
and bones with " Memento mori" 

A medium-sized stone is thus inscribed : 

" Here lyes the body of James Jameson who dyed the 23 day 
of Novmber 1732 aged 78." 

On the other side of this are rudely carved the 
cross bones and skull, with several implements of 
industry. 

A small, peculiarly-shaped stone bears on one side 
the words : 

" Here . lyes . the . corps . of . James . Ker . who . died . 
Desember . 30 . 1719 . and . his . sister . Jane . Ker . who died . 
Apriel . 14 . 1724." 

On the other side is a very small death s head, and 
some other grotesque figures in human shape, with 
initials and date, thus : 

"IK 1724 I K." 

On a very small, plain stone are these words : 

" Here lyes the corpse of Alexander Scowlar who died January 
15 1747." 

Another small stone is inscribed thus : 

" Here lyes the cors of William Black who died February 21 
1727." 

A large upright slab, which has formerly been a 
horizontal stone, bears a cross or sword in low relief, 
on one side of which is this inscription : 

"R B 

1676." 

A large stone bears these words : 

" Here lyes the corps of Robert Galbraith who died 1GG9 and 
Elspeth Johnston his spous who died 1697." 



104 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On a small stone we read : 

" Hire lys the corps of Katren Darlin who died Nouember 11 
day 1732 aged 19." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 

been in Edrom since 1574 : 
f 

Patrick Gait or Gaittis 1574 to 1582. 

William Carrail-1583 to 1612. 

Matthew Carraill 1612 to 1646. 

John Home 1646 to 1648. 

William Home 1648 to 1649. 

Thomas Svynetowne (or Swinton), M.A. 1649 to 1661. 

Andrew Bannatin, M. A. 1662 to 1665. 

Alexander Hewat, M. A. 1665 to 1677. 

George Trotter, M. A. 1677 to 1682. 

Patrick Robertson, M. A. 1682 to 1686. 

John Barclay 1689 to 1689 (a few months). 

Andrew Guthrie 1690 to 1698. 

Thomas Anderson 1701 to 1712. 

Alexander Trotter, M. A. 1713 to 1758. 

William Redpath 1759 to 1797. 

John Hastie 1797 to 1822. 

Alexander Cuthbertson 1823 to 1849. 

James Wilson 1849 to 1872. 

George Gibson Gunn 1872 to 1882. 

Macduff Simpson (present incumbent) 1883. 

There is a Free Church at the village of Allariton, 
in this parish, built in 1843 a neat, well-built struc 
ture, cruciform in shape, with a pleasing interior. 
The present minister is Charles Blades, settled in 

1887. 



EYEMOUTH. 105 



IE 2 e m o u t b. 

THERE is very little known concerning the church 
of Eyemouth. Up till the Reformation it was one 
of the many dependencies subordinate to the church 
of St. Mary at Coldingham. The name of Gilbert, 
the priest of Eyemouth, appears in the year 1295 
as witness to a confirmation charter granted by 
William, Bishop of St. Andrews, to the monks of 
Durham. 

In the year 1340 one Robert de Kellow officiated 
in the church of Eyemouth. He was soon after 
wards raised to the position of sacrist in the priory 
of Coldingham, but, proving dishonest, he was 
ejected in 1345. The last of its chaplains was one 
Thomas Steele. 

Of the old original fabric we know almost nothing. 
The predecessor of the present church stood a little 
distance to the north. It has been transformed into 
a modern and well-proportioned dwelling-house, 
owned and inhabited by Dr. Forsyth, medical 
practitioner. This gentleman informed the author 
that, several years ago. while some repairs were 
being effected, a number of skeletons were dug up, 
these having been buried below the floor of the 
church, a practice which prevailed in olden times. 

The present church, which was built in the year 
1812, is a substantial edifice, but without any claim 



106 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

to architectural beauty. The steeple is high, and 
forms an admirable set-off against the severe 
plainness of the building. 

The interior is also plain, and after the old style 
of country parish churches. Several elegant marble 
slabs, suitably inscribed, adorn the walls. There is 
a neat pipe organ, which was one of the first to be 
introduced into parish churches in Scotland. The 
bell was made in London, and bears the date 1836. 
It was brought in a sailing smack, was a long 
time on the journey, and had quite an adventurous 
voyage. An interesting feature in the building are 
the beautiful pitch pine joists. These were con 
cealed up till about 20 years ago, when the ceiling 
was removed. 

The communion plate consists of two silver cups, 
engraved : 

" THIRE CUPS BELONGETH 
TO THE CHURCH OF HAYMOUTH 
D M s 1689 -" 

The old churchyard is situated about 300 paces 
north of the church. In one corner is the 
watch-house, or, as it was called, the " dead-house." 
It was used in the days of Burke and Hare as a 
shelter for those who kept watch over the dead, 
and to guard them against the depredations and 
violence of the resurrectionists. Though small, it 
is an exceedingly interesting building, alike for the 
antiquary and the ecclesiologist. Its walls are 
composed almost entirely of fragments of old 
tombstones, many of them bearing elaborate and 
skilfully-executed carved work. On one stone the 
1680 is observable. Another has 1672. 



EYEMOUTH. 107 

The tombstones in the churchyard are very 
much crumbled away and defaced. A large stone 
built into the back wall is much defaced, and only 
the following words can be deciphered : 

"C. H. 16 of March 1650." 

Alongside of the above is another very large 
stone, which bears these words : 

" Heir . lyeth . the . bodie . of . Wiliam . Cwrrie . merchant . 
in . Emowth . who . lived . a . sober . and . Christian . lyf . 
a . haiter . of . al . wickednes . and . sin . died . the . 22 . of . 
May . 1680 . the . 47 . of . his . aidg." 

The following lines appear on a medium-sized 
stone, erected to the memory of Jean Young 

1791 : 

" Afflictions sore 
Long time I bore 
Physicians were in vain 
At last it pleased 
Almighty God to send 
And ease me of my pain." 

A small stone is thus inscribed : 

" Agnus Begarny his wife died about the year 1650. Isabel 
Hester wife to And r Vertue fewer in Eymouth died 28 Octr 
1697." 

The following is a list of the ministers who have 
been in Eyemouth since 1615 : 

Andrew Ramsay 1615 to 1627. 
John Home 1627 to 1646. 
James Stratton, M. A. 1647 to 1663. 
James Bannatin, M. A. 1665 to 1673. 

Gilbert Innes 1673 to . 

John Wilkie 1677 to 1683. 

David Stirling, M. A. 1689 to 1689 (a few months). 



108 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

James Ramsay, M. A. 1693 to 1707. 

John Cuming 1708 to 1715. 

James Allan 1716 to 1737. 

James Allan, M. A. 1737 to 1767. 

Thomas Taitt 1767 to 1776. 

James Williamson 1776 to 1785. 

George Todd 1785 to 1801. 

James Smith, D.D. 1802 to 1825. 

John Turnbull (assistant and successor) 1822 to 1843.* 

John Murdoch 1844 to 1845. 

Stephen Bell -1845 to 1881. 

John Dempster Munro (present incumbent) 1882. 

The United Presbyterian Church at Eyemouth 
was erected in 1843. The building is oblong, with 
pavilion roof. It is after the manner of the old 
Secession churches, a plain, unpretentious building 
externally, but neat and comfortable internally. 
The present minister is David Kinloch Miller, M.A., 
settled in 1880. 

The Evangelical Union Church is a plain oblong 
building, erected in 1862. The present minister is 
Thomas Gourlay Taylor, M.A., settled in 1894. 

The Primitive Methodist Church is an elongated 
building, very plain, erected in 1836. The present 
minister is J. J. Harrison. 

The Free Church was erected in 1878. It is a 
beautiful edifice, with a tall spire, which can be 
seen a long distance off. The present minister is 
John Miller, settled in 1887. 

St. Ebba s (Episcopal) Church, Eyemouth, was 



* On adhering to the Protest, joining in tha Free Secession, 
and signing the deed of Demission, Turnbull was declared no 
longer a minister of this church, 24th May, 1843. Scott s Fasti 
Ecclesiw Scoticance. 



EYEMOUTH. 109 

built in 1887. The building is in the Norman 
style, and occupies a beautiful situation overlooking 
the bay. Services are provided by the Rector of 
Christ Church. Duns. 



110 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



THIS church was founded about the middle of the 
twelfth century. In the year 1159 the church of 
" Foghow," with one carucate of land, was granted 
by Cospatrick, third Earl of Dunbar, to the abbey 
of Kelso, in whose possession it remained till the 
Reformation. David, " vicar of Foghow," swore 
fealty to Edward L, and thus had his vicarage 
restored.* 

It is not known at what time the church was 
built. The older part of it, however viz., the 
foundations and part of the walls are undoubtedly 
ancient. It was completely restored in 1755, when 
the greater part of the old building was taken down. 
Two built-up arches, which probably formed the 
entrance to vaults underneath the church, are dis 
tinctly traceable near the middle of the north wall, 
a little above the level of the ground. 

At the east end of the church is the Harcarse 
aisle, a picturesque and venerable building, com 
pletely overgrown with ivy. It has been suggested 
that this may have been a reconstruction of the 
chancel of the old church. 

A fragment of an old burial slab has been pre 
served in this aisle. It has carved on its upper 



Chalmers Caledonia. 



FOGO. Ill 

face an elaborate and ornate cross, with a branched 
stem, but no portion of the base or arms remains. 
The work has been unusually well executed, and 
probably belongs to the fourteenth century.* 

An old stone built into the exterior wall of the 
church, near the south-west door, has sculptured on 
its outer surface three figures in costume, two men, 
and a female in the middle, with the following 
inscription : 

" We three served God, lived in his Fear, 
And Loved Him who Bought us Dear." 

A scroll or sash across the breast of each of the 
figures is inscribed : 

" Vive Memor Lcthi." 

The costume of the figures seems to be that of the 
Queen Anne or early Hanoverian period. But 
nothing whatever is known as to whom the figures 
are intended to represent. 

There are several old charters relating to a 
CHAPEL dedicated to St. Nicholas, which was 
granted by Patrick Corbet to the monks of Kelso 
Abbey between 1280 and 1 297.f Whether this was 
a specially endowed chapel in the parish church of 
Fogo, or a separate ecclesiastical foundation within 
the limits of the parish, is not altogether certain. 
The terms of the charters would seem to indicate a 
distinct foundation ; and the double dedication by 



* Mr. Ferguson. 11 int. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 
t Liber de Culchou. 



112 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Bishop Bernham (1242 and 1243) confirms this 
view.* 

The exterior of the church is exceedingly pictur 
esque, being almost completely covered with ivy. 
It stands on the eastern bank of a narrow valley, 
which leads to a ford on the Blackadder, three miles 
south of Duns. 

The interior of the church is exceedingly plain. 
On the front of the east gallery are emblazoned the 
arms of Hog of Harcaise, with initials and motto 

thus : 

"Dat Gloria Vires. 
Sr 
R.H. 1677" 

On a stone inserted in the wall of the Charterhall 
loft are sculptured the arms of George Trotter of 
Morton Hall, with motto thus : 

" Deo Dante Florebo, 1671 
Mr George Trotter, His Arms." 

Fogo possesses an old bowl, which bears the 
following inscription : 

" x Ex x Done x M x Geo x Troteri x in x W S V M 
x sacra x csense x in x ecc x Fogensi x Anno x Dom x 
1662." 

The arms of the donor, enclosed in a wreath, are 
engraved on the bowl.f 

The churchj-ard contains a number of interesting 
stones. Built into the churchyard wall is a neat 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 

t Mr. Geo. Trotter was proprietor of Charterhall, in the 
parish of Fogo. He was an ardent supporter of the Royalist 
cause, for which he was heavily fined. 



FOGO. 113 

stone, bearing the following inscription, which has 
been restored : 

" Here lies Mr John Pringle minister of the Gospel at Fogo 
32 years who died the 22 Feb 1682 of his age the 54 year. 
" Clauditur exigua Venerandus Pringlius urna 

Vir pius et Justus, propositi tenax, 
Nobilibus prognatus avis prae tuxit avorum 

Famae, doctrina, religione fide. 
Vere evangelicus pastor, Regique Deoque 
Fidus erat, patriae spesque decusque suae, 
Pauperibus largus patuit domus hospita cunctis 
Rebus in incertis certus amicus erat, 
Felix innocuura qui sic transegerit aevum 
Vivere huic Christus praemia magna mori." 

It is stated upon good authority that there used 
to be in this churchyard a tombstone though it 
has not been seen for the last fifty years bearing 
the following inscription : 

" Here lyes the body & the Banes 
Of the Laird of Whinkerstanes : 
He was neither gude to rich nor puir, 
But now the Deal has him sure." 

Another version of the above runs thus : 

" Here lyes the body and the banes 
Of the michty Laird of Whinkerstanes : 
He had nae other God ava 
But Rosiebank and Charterha ." 

The following appears on a very small stone : 

" Heir lyes Marie . . . Spoos to John Neil who died 
1621." 

On a neat, medium-sized stone are these words: 

" Robert Paterson who died in Feb. 20 and of his age 78 in 
the year 1712." 

H 



114 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The date 1683, only, appears on a small, plain 
stone, and on a similar one 1680. 
A small, ornamental stone is inscribed thus : 

" Here lyes the body of Jenet Broun daughtr to Thorn. 
Broun heind in Utholm who died the 21 day of Jun 1719 aged 
22 years. 

" Also Margret his yongest daguhter who died" . 

The remaining words of the above are obliterated. 
A large, peculiarly-shaped stone bears these 
words : 

" Her cars and labours ended with her life 
Here rests a faithful friend a virteious wife 
A daughter anxeious for a mother s fame 
With love and reverence this inroles her name. " 

Below the husband s name, on the same stone, are 
these lines : 

" An honest man a Peaceful neighbour 
A faithful friend to whomsoever." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Fogo since 1590 : 

William Methwen--1590 to 1626. 

James Methwen 1626 to 1650. 

John Pringle, M. A. 1650 to 1682. 

William Methven, M. A. 1682 to 1689. 

George Moodie, M. A. 1693 to 1721. 

William Home 1722 to 1756. 

John Todd 1785 to 1814. 

George M Lean 1814 to 1840. 

John Baillie 1841 to 1843. 

Andrew Redman Bon ar 1843 to 1845. 

Robert Forrester Proudfoot 1845 to 1891. 

William Henry Gray Smith (present incumbent) 1891. 



FOULDEN. 115 



lfoult>en, 

THIS is one of those churches about whose origin, 
unfortunately, there is scarcely a scrap of infor 
mation to be had from any source whatever. 
There are two inferences that might reasonably be 
drawn from such a circumstance. The first is, that 
its origin may be so remote as to be obscured by 
the mists of antiquity, a circumstance which would 
greatly enhance its importance ; the second, that, 
as a religious establishment, co-existent with others 
of the twelfth century, its ecclesiastical status was 
comparatively unimportant. To the latter class 
Foulden, in all probability, belongs. 

The living is referred to in the ancient Taxatio 
(1176). " Robert de Ramsay, the parson of 
Foulden," swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick 
on 24th September, 1296, and was soon after rein 
stated in his former rights and privileges. 

It would seem that the priory of Abbey St. 
Bathans held certain lands in this parish, for in the 
year 1423-4 Roger Golin, parson of Foulden, dis 
puted the claims of the prioress, and the matter 
was submitted to the arbitration of the prior of 
Coldingham. In this parish there is a farm bearing 
the suggestive name of Nunlands, where it is 
supposed a nunnery existed in early times, but no 



116 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

record or tradition has been met with that gives 
any information on the subject. The only frag 
ment in the way of remains which could point to 
the existence of such an establishment at Nunlands 
is the basin of an old baptismal font, which was 
found there a quarter of a century ago. 

In the year 1587 the church of Foulden was the 
scene of an important historical event. A confer 
ence was held at which commissioners, representing 
Queen Elizabeth on the one hand and James VI. 
on the other, gravely debated the question of 
Elizabeth s action in the execution of Mary Queen 
of Scots. 

The present church was built in 1786, on what 
are supposed to be the ancient foundations. It is a 
plain oblong, each of the side walls supported by 
three buttresses; the whole almost completely 
overgrown with ivy, and exceedingly picturesque. 
It stands on an elevation close to the Duns and 
Berwick road, five miles distant from the latter, 
and overlooking a large and beautiful expanse of 
country on either side of the Tweed. Flodden Hill 
and a considerable section of the Cheviot range are 
prominent features in the landscape. 

The interior of the church is neat and comfort 
able. Above the pulpit, at the west end, is a 
beautiful, stained-glass window in the Gothic style. 

Reference has already been made to the basin of 
an old baptismal font. This remnant of ecclesi 
astical antiquity lies close to the south wall of the 
church. It is octagonal in form, with a slightly 
projecting half-round moulding at each of the 
angles, and is 27 inches in diameter : the bowl 



FOULDEN. 117 

being 16 inches wide by 7 inches in depth, and 
having a email aperture in the bottom.* 

The most interesting tombstone in the church 
yard, and certainly one of the most rare antique 
grave tablets in Scotland, is that which records the 
decease of the Honourable George Ramsay. It 
would seem that Ramsay hailed from Fife " Fyfe 
fostring peace me bred " and had a distinguished 
record in warfare. At length, " Weried with vares 
and sore opprest," he took up his abode in Foulden, 
where he seemed to find more peace than on his 
native soil. The George Ramsay here referred to 
was the last in the male line of the Ramsays of 
Foulden. a branch of the family of Dalhousie. It 
is a large horizontal stone, in good condition. The 
full inscription is as follows : 

" HEIR . LYETH . ANE . HONORABIL . MAN . GEORG 

" Fyfe . fostring . peace . me . bred 53 

From . hence . the . merce . me . cald ^ 

The . merce . to . marsis . lavis . led 5 

To . byde . his . battlis . bald > 

j* " Weried . with . vares . and . sore . opprest 

Death . gave . to . mars . the . foyl 

gj And . now . I . have . more . qvyet . rest 

Than . in . my . native . soyl 

^ Fyfe . merce . mars . mort . these . fatal . four 

pq Al . hail . my . days . has . dreven . ovr" 

jo put; SGiJT ircf pajawJop OUM -laxsvg 

The following appears on a very small stone : 
" Here lyeth Thomas Pentlain who died xxn April 1691." 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



118 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On another : 

" Here lyes the corps of James William and Euphans who all 
died betwixt ye years 1705 and 1711." 

Another small stone is inscribed : 

"Here lyes the corps of James Thomas Elisbeth Wilsons 
childer to George Wilson in Edington who departed in the year 
1719." 

These words appear on a medium-sized stone : 

" Here lyeth Helen Dewar, wife to John Mitchelson elder 
who died 1689. 

" Here also lyes John and James sons to John Mitchelson 
younger John 1689. 

"James died 1690." 

In a scooped-out panel, on a large horizontal 
stone, these initials and date are engraved: 

"ESC 
1586" 

Below this, on the plain surface of the stone, are 
these initials : 

"R S 
E B" 

A small, thin stone is inscribed : 

"Here lyeth the corps of Agn . . Bregs wife to John 
Midelmist who departed this life March the 27 1709 her 



The following is a list of the ministers who have 
been in Foulden since 1567 : 

David Hume 1567 to 1569. 

George Johnston 1572 to 1572 (a few months). 

George Ramsay 1574 to 1575. 

Thomas Storie 1576 to 1596. 

Tobias Ramsay 1596 to . 



FOULDEN. 119 

Oliver Colt, M. A. 1614 to > 

Thomas Ramsay 1630 to 1650. 

James Tweedie, M. A.- 1652 to 1659. 

George Home- 1659 to 1660. 

David Stirling, M. A. 1660 to 1664. 

Patrick Sharpe 1665 to 1681. 

Thomas Thomson, M. A. 1682 to 1696. 

Robert Park -1699 to 1754. 

John Buchanan 1755 to 1785. 

David Young, M. A. 1786 to 1812. 

John Edgar, M. A. 1813 to 1821. 

Alexander Christison 1821 to 1874. 

Archibald Bisset 1874 to 1876. 

William Campbell, B.D. 1877 to 1883. 

John Donald Douglas 1883 to 1886. 

John Reid, M.A. (present incumbent) 1886. 



120 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



<S o r 6 o n. 

IN the reign of David I. (1124-1153) the advow- 
son of the church of Gordon was acquired by the 
monks of Coldingham. These monks in 1171 
exchanged the church of Gordon with the monks 
of Kelso for the chapel of Ersildun and church of 
St. Lawrence at Berwick. Richard, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, who died 1177, confirmed to the 
monks of Kelso the church of Gordon, with entirety 
of parish of Gordon and of Spottiswood. The 
diocesan, Garnelin, on 27th May, 1270, granted to 
the monks of Kelso that the churches of Gordon 
and Home, which they enjoyed to their proper use, 
should be served, not by vicars, but honest chaplains 
and sufficient clerks, for whom he and his successors 
might be able to answer. In the ancient parishes 
of Gordon and Westruther, there were of old 
several chapels. In 1309 the monks of Kelso 
agreed that Sir Adam Gordon might have a 
private chapel at any place within the parish of 
Gordon, with all oblations, yet without a prejudice 
to the mother church. In return, Sir Adam removed 
all claim on a carucate of land, with usual easements, 
in the district of Westruther, which had been 
granted to those monks by Sir Andrew Fraser, 
and for which they had agreed to pay two franks 
yearly. 



GORDON. 121 

There was also a CHAPEL at HUNTLEYWOOD, two 
miles west of Gordon, in the same parish, founded 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, and 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In old charters it 
is referred to as " the chapel of the blessed Virgin 
Mary of Huntlie, commonly called the Chantory" 
It must have continued to exist a considerable time 
after the Reformation, as it is mentioned as late as 
1638. Not a vestige of the building now remains ; 
indeed, its exact location cannot now be ascertained, 
although a field about a quarter of a mile to the 
south-west of Huntleywood still bears the name of 
" Chapel Lea." 

At SPOTTISWOOD, five miles north of Gordon, there 
was also a CHAPEL, which was under the church of 
Gordon. Its site is now in the parish of Westruther, 
under which head a fuller notice will be found. 

No vestige now remains of the original church 
of Gordon, which was demolished more than a 
century ago. The present building, which was 
erected in 1763, is a low, plain structure, long and 
narrow, after the good old fashion of ancient 
churches. A modern wing has been added to the 
back, and a stone built into it informs us that it was 
" Erected by Gordon Fewers 1815." 

A singular discovery was made several years ago 
when introducing the heating apparatus into the 
church ; the workmen came upon a pit of about a 
yard square in the centre of the building, in which 
76 skulls were huddled together, and a number of 
thigh bones corresponding to these, as if they had 
been removed from some other situation, and 
deposited there. It was remarked that the skulls 



122 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

were extraordinarily thick, and the thigh bones 
were acknowledged to be longer than those of 
the past or present generation. The teeth were 
wonderfully perfect. Farther along the passage 
several complete skeletons were found, at intervals, 
disposed east and west. All these were conveyed 
to the churchyard for re-interment. 

The interior of the church is exceedingly plain. 
One of the seats, on the authority of the session 
records, was called the Wedderlie seat, set apart 
for the Edgars of Wedderlie. 

There are two silver communion cups engraved : 

"BELONGING TO THE PARISH OF GORDON 1763." 

The churchyard contains one or two stones of 
minor interest. 

On a medium-sized stone which marks the burial 
place of Thomas Henderson, formerly schoolmaster 
of Gordon, who died January 13th, 1772, are these 
lines : 

" Ah he was great in body & in mind 
A loving Husband & a Father kind 
As he most men Excided in his Stature 
So he Exceled in his Literature 
But although he is gone & greatly mist 
God s will be done we hope he is Blest." 

These lines appear at the foot of a modern 
stone : 

" He d roped like a flower that was nipped in the bud 
He took the repose of the gentle and good 
He blest us he left us our tears they flowed on 
We desire that beautiful land where he is gone." 



GORDON. 123 

On a neat and exquisitely carved wooden slab 
are these pathetic words : 

" Sadly missed." 

Appended is a list of the ministers that have been 
in Gordon since 1574: 

Archibald Fairbarne, reader 1574 to 1585. 

Thomas Storie 1609 to 1625. 

Francis Collace, M. A. 1625 to 1647. 

Norman Leslie, M.A. 1647 to 1657. 

John Hardie, M. A. 1659 to 1662. 

James Straton, M. A. 1663 to 1682. 

John Findlay 1682 to 1685. 

Thomas Mabane, M. A. 1685 to 1689. 

John Hardie, M.D. (reinstated) 1690 to 1707. 

David Brown, M. A. 1708 to 1726. 

John Bell 1727 to 1767. 

Alexander Duncan, M. A. 1770 to 1800. 

Robert Lundie 1801 to 1807. 

Walter Morison 1807 to 1814. 

David William Gordon 1814 to 1824. 

James Paterson 1824 to 1855. 

William Stobbs, M. A. 1855 to 1885. 

Thomas Porteous, M.A.,B.D. (present incumbent) 1885. 

The Free Church at Gordon was erected in 1843, 
and has been repeatedly altered since. It is com 
fortable and commodious. The present minister is 
William Adamson MacCallum, settled in 1895. 

HUME. 

THIS was formerly a parish in Berwickshire, and 
ceased to have a separate parochial existence in 
1640. In the twelfth century the parish included 
portions of the present parishes of Gordon and 
Westruther. The church was dedicated to St. 



124 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Nicholas, and the patronage belonged to the Earls 
of Dunbar. 

During Malcolm IV. s reign (1153-1265), Earl 
Cospatrick gave to the monks of Kelso the church 
of Hume, with two carucates of land and the 
meadow called Harestrother within the same parish.* 

The chapel of Wederley (now in Westruther 
parish, and noticed under that head) was in early 
times under the superiority of the church of Hume. 

Concerning the old church building we have no 
information whatever ; only the foundations in the 
shape of irregular mounds can be traced in the old 
burial ground of Hume. The only remnant still in 
existence is an ancient Celtic ecclesiastical bell, 13 
inches in length (now in the museum of Kelso). 
It belongs to the class of bells carried and rung by 
the hand, and, from its character and shape, to the 
earliest type of these (the quadrangular-shaped 
bells in use by the early Celtic church, previous at 
all events to the twelfth century, as from that time 
of papal progress in Scotland until the present day, 
church bells have all been made, or rather cast, 
in a circular form). This bell has been taken notice 
of and commented upon by many learned antiquaries 
in Scotland, and high authorities.! 



* Cnalmers Caledonia. 

t It is thus described in the Catalogue of Antiquities, etc., 
exhibited in the Museum of the Archreological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, July, 1856, p. 33: "An ancient bell of 
iron, dipped in brass, with which the entire surface was probably 
coated : its dimensions are almost the same as the Birnie bell ; 
the form and proportions are identical with those of the Clog- 
rinny, or bell of St. Ninian (of which a representation is given). 



HUME. 125 

The site of the church and the burial ground are 
now included within the parochial limits of Stitchel 
parish in Roxburghshire. The latter is still in use 
for the northern part of the parish. 

A large, horizontal stone is inscribed : 

" Here lyes George Stevenson tenant in Hume Byers who 
died 1617. 

"Also John Stevenson his son tennant in Hume Byres who 
died Nov. 1668." 

Another horizontal stone has elaborate ornamental 
carved work and a well-executed cross in relief on 
its upper surface. No other lettering or date 
appears on the stone. 

A small, ornamental stone is inscribed thus : 

" Here lyes James Broun who liued in Hume and died Sept r 
ye 9 1734 in the 63th year of his age." 

A small, round-headed stone, apparently very 
old, has an ornamental cross engraved on each side, 
but without any other inscription. 

A large, very plain, horizontal stone is inscribed : 

"Here lyes Thomas Trotter tennant in Hume who died 
August 4 1700 aged 58 years. 

" Also his spous Jannet Hoe who died Dec. 15 1721." 



This supplies an accurate notion of the fashion of these early 
Christian relics. The example exhibited was found at Hume 
Castle, near Kelso. Its previous history has not been ascertained. 
The Tweedside Antiquarian Society, Kelso." From the 
proximity of Hume Castle to the site of Hume church, the 
inference that the bell belonged to that church is almost fully 
war rr an ted. 



126 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



(Sreenlaw, 

THE church of Greenlaw was given to the abbey 
of Kelso by Cospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, in 1147, 
together with the subordinate chapels of Lambden 
and Haliburton. William Lamberton, who ruled 
the see of St. Andrews from 1298 to 1328, granted 
these several churches to the monks of Kelso in 
consideration of the great waste of the succession 
war.* In 1296 Nicholas del Camb, vicar of Green- 
law, swore fealty to Edward I. 

Of the original fabric of the mother church 
nothing can now be seen ; but the present building, 
in all probability, rests on its foundations. Previous 
to 1712 the building, like most of the old churches, 
was of the long and narrow type, and of rude and 
primitive construction. At that period it was 
lengthened and raised to its present height. The 
style of the building is partly Norman. The 
corbie-step gables present a feature prevalent in 
the seventeenth century. At the west end of the 
church there was erected in 1712 a handsome 
tower, which forms the principal and most striking 
feature of the present building. It was erected, 
not as a church tower or steeple, but as a tolbooth 

* Chartulary of Kelso. 



GREENLAW 127 

or prison. Its form and style were adopted so 
that it might at the same time present the appear 
ance of a church tower. It is unique in structure 
square, rising to a height of 60 feet, and ending in 
a corbled parapet top. From this part the steeple 
proper, which is 18 feet in height, takes its rise, 
tapering to a point about 78 feet from the ground. 
The ascent is made by a spiral staircase ; and 
formerly there were small loopholes in the walls. 
At the foot of this tower is an old iron gate of the 
tolbooth type ; no doubt the original one of 1712. 
The court-house formerly stood on the west side 
of the tower. The lower part of the tower, used 
as a prison, was called " Hell s Hole." There was 
a grim old rhyme referring to the church and 
court-house : 

" Here stands the gospel and the law, 
Wi Hell s Hole atween the twa." 

About forty-six years ago, while some excava 
tions were being made inside the church, it was 
discovered that there were three floors, and that on 
the lowest, about 3 feet under the present floor, 
there have been interments, and are still monu 
mental stones, one of which required to be lifted 
and removed in excavating a drain.* This stone 
is still to be seen in the churchyard. It is of oblong 
form, and has incised upon it a cross, the letters 
"A. H." in the upper left hand angle, and the 
letters " I. L." in the corresponding angle at the 
right hand. The form of the characters shows it 



* Rev. John Walker. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1863-68. 



128 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

to be of late date, probably not earlier than the 
latter half of the sixteenth century.* 

There were formerly three chapels in this parish 
dependent on the mother church viz., LAMBDEN, 
HALYBURTON, and ROWIESTONE. 

The chapel of Lambden (Lambdene), in the 
south-east quarter of Greenlaw parish, was built 
by Walter de Strivelin, who held the lands of 
Lambden under Cospatrick, about the middle of 
the twelfth century. Walter obtained from the 
Bishop of St. Andrews permission to build a church 
within his village of Lambden, on the concession 
and request of Cospatrick, the earl, whose fee the 
said hamlet was.f No vestige of the building now 
remains. 

The chapel of Halyburton was granted to the 
monks of Kelso in 1176 by "David, the son of 
Tructe, within his vill, with some crofts and two 
bovates of land ; and all for the sake of the soul of 
his Lord, Cospatrick, the Earl."} In 1261, Philip 
cle Halyburton gave the monks a resignation of the 
chapel of Halyburton. The only vestige of this 
chapel remaining is a small portion of a wall 
forming a part of Halyburton farm-house garden 
wall.ll 

The chapel of Rowiestone, the date of whose 
origin is uncertain, seems to have been connected 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. flat. Club, 1890. 

i Chartulary, Kelso. 

J Chartulary, Kelso. 

Chalmers 3 Cakdonia. 

\\ Mr. Robert Gibson, Greenlaw. 



GREEXLAW. 129 

with the abbey of Melrose. The building has been 
entirely removed, but its burying-ground was dis 
covered about fifty years ago, when the field in 
which it lies was being drained. It was in the 
form of a square, surrounded on three sides by fine 
old trees ; but so completely, owing to the frequent 
changes of the agricultural population, had all 
memory of it been lost, that the original purpose 
of the enclosure was quite unknown."* 

The old bell at present in use in Greenlaw church 
is inscribed thus : 

" Thomas Brovnfield his gift to the Kirk of Greenlaw Anno 
1696 & refounded 1726 R M fecit Edr." Thomas Brovnfield was 
farmer in Greenlawdean. He " left 400 merks to buy ane guid 
bell for the paroche church of Greenlaw." 

In the front wall of the church is a stone tablet, 
inscribed : 

" To the memory of Thomas Broomfield, a considerable bene 
factor to this parish and the public. Buried here Agust 1667. 
By order of the Kirk Session of Greenlaw this is erected 1742." 

Two silver communion cups are engraved : 
" The property of the Kirk Session of Greenlaw 1786." 

The churchyard is large, and contains many old 
stones, the inscriptions on which, unfortunately, are 
undecipherable. At the bottom of a handsome 
stone to the memory of William Hislop, surgeon, 
Greenlaw, are these beautiful lines: 

" Dear is the spot where loved ones sleep, 

And sweet the strains their spirits pour, 
0, why should we in anguish weep ; 
They are not lost, but gone before." 



Rev. John Walker. ffist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1863-68. 

1 



130 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Greenlaw since 1606 : 

David Home, M. A. 1606 to 1637. 

Robert Home, M. A. 1645 to 1673. 

John Home 1674 to 1689. 

Archibald Borthuik, M. A. 1693 to 1709. 

James Gilliland 1711 to 1724. 

Thomas Turnbull 1725 to 1734. 

John Hume- 1734 to 1777. 

William Simson 1778 to 1799. 

John Stewart 1799 to 1804. 

James Luke 1804 to 1820. 

Abraham Home 1821 to 1844. 

John Hunter Walker 1844 to 1881. 

Arthur Gordon, M. A. 1881 to 1886. 

Hugh MacCulloch (present incumbent) 1886. 

The United Presbyterian Church was built in 
1855. It is oblong, with ornamental front and 
steeplette. The interior is neat and commodious. 
The present minister is James Ferguson Padkin. 
settled in 1895. 

The Free Church here was built in 1856-7. The 
first congregation was one of the " Old Light 
Original Seceders." The church is a neat struc 
ture, and it is very comfortable and commodious, 
with a large hall adjoining. The present minister 
is Alexander Cameron, M.A., settled in 1875. 



HUTTOX. 131 



1b u 1 1 o m 

THIS parish consists of the old parishes of Hutton 
and Fishwick. There is no mention made of the 
church of Hutton till the year 1243, although in all 
probability it existed considerably prior to this ; 
possibly in the time of King Edgar, as " Huton" 
was one of the manors bestowed by that king upon 
the monks of St. Cuthbert, Durham. In that year 
the church was dedicated by David de Bernham, 
Bishop of St. Andrews. In the year 1296 " Thomas, 
parsoria de Huton," swore fealty to Edward I. 
From this up till the time when Fishwick was 
united to it in the year 1614 we have no 
information whatever about the church of Hutton. 
It would seem that in the year 1655 the church 
(the original building in all probability) underwent 
considerable repairs, as the following extracts from 
session records will show : 

" Dec. 4, 1655. Given to George Smith 36 sh. 
Taken out of the box to pay the woman in 
Barwick for the timber to the laft 18 sh. starling, 
7d. Given to George Smith for thatching of the 
kirk 50 sh. " 

" Jan. 13, 1656. Given to James Scouller in 
pairt of payment 4 lib. for working the timber of 
the laft. " 



132 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

" Feb. 3, 1656. Given out of the boxe to Mrs. 
Dune in Barwick 8 sh. starling 9d for timber to 
the kirk. " 

No portion of the pre-Reformation church 
remains; its successor was built in 1765; this 
again was replaced in 1835 by the present church 
a handsome modern structure in the Norman 
style, with a fine square tower.* 

The churchyard contains a number of old and 
very interesting tombstones. 

An old stone bears the following Latin inscrip 
tion : 

" Vixi quoad volui : 
Volui quoad fata volebant ; 
Nee mihi vita brevis, 
Nee mihi longa fuit." 

On an old, neatly-carved stone : 

" Here lye the bodyes of James King who departed this life 
1687 and Janet St his wife who died 1672." 

On a small stone : 

" Heir lyes John Forman who died in Febrvary 17 1684 and 
Nicolis Trotter his wife who died in May 21 1694 and James 
Forman ther sone who died 1700." 

An artistically-carved stone bears : 

" Heir lyes Marie Thomson who died in Jvne 27 1698 and 
Robert Thomson her brother who died in May 10 1693." 



* When the false alarm about a French invasion under 
Napoleon was flashed across the country, the Volunteers in the 
district made Hutton their rallying-point, and spent a night 
under arms in the old church i.e., the 1765 structure. Rev. 
Dr. Kirke, Hutton. 






HUTTOX. 133 

The following appears on a large horizontal 
stone : 

"HERE WAS BURI 

2 

TO THOMAS 
HVME OF TIN- 
W NINGHAME BR 2 
O OTHER TO THE 

FOUNDER OF 

DVNGLA8 ANNO 
w 1564. 

> AND NICOLAS 5 
g KER DAVGH- 5 
g TER TO GEO- 

> RGB KER OF 
THE HOUSE 

OF SAMILSTON g 

ANNO 1569. 
H WITH II E N R I E o 
HVME THEIR ^ 
~ SONE ANNO a 

1591 AND 180- 
2 BEL TOD HIS r 
WIFE ANN O 
E 1578. AND R O- o 
B E R T HVME ^ 

IN BUTTON 
THEIR SONE g 
AND ISOBEL 
H DICKSON O 

HIS WIFE 
H 1618. 

AND R O B E It T 
> HVME SON TO 
g HENRIE HVME ^ 
IN HUTTON ^ 

1 6 7 8." 

s T r i a AV a x i N a H x 
On a small stone : 

" Remember man as thou gos by 
As thou art now so one was I 
Remember man that thou most die." 

On a similar stone : 

" Heir lyes the body of Jen Fliman who departed this lyfe in 
thj year 1721 and hir age 18." 



134 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On a medium-sized stone : 

" Here is interred the Rev. John Orr episcopal minister of 
Hutbon Parish. 

" He was ordained in 1680 and he died in 1694." 

The imperfect spelling in the following, which 
appears on a small stone, is evidently the result of 
carelessness on the part of the workman : 

" Hear lys the Boy of . . . Dodgle who die 1690 and if 
his wife 1703." 

In the well-kept burial place of the Homes are 
interred, along with others of that family, the 
remains of the late 

"David Milne Home Esq. L.L.D., F.R.S.E. &c. &c. of 
Milne Graden, Eldest Son of Admiral Sir David Milne Home 
G.C.B. Born 22 Janr 1805, died 19th Sept. 1890." 

At the base of a neat stone are these lines : 

" Tossed to and fro no more 
on life s tempestuous sea 
His happy soul hath reached 
the shore of calm eternity." 

On a very large stone : 

" Heir was bvried John Boomaker 1633 and Margarit Cook 
his davghter in Law Aprile 24 1668." 

Iii the Button Hall aisle an old burial vault to 
the west of the church, which appears to be a 17th 
century erection there is a stone inscribed : 

Sacred to the memory of Catherine Home, wife of Robt. 
Johnston of Hutton Hall, who died Deer 25th 1820 and to her 
grandchild Catherine Hester Scott who was cut down like a 
flower of the field Novr 2d 1823 in the 15 year of her age. 

" If we believe that Jesus died and rose again even so them 
also that sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. May 1831." 



BUTTON. 135 

The bell in Hutton church bears the following 
inscription : 

" SOLI DEO GLORIA IOHANNES 
BVRGERHVYS ME FECIT 1661." 

The above is printed in one circle on the upper 
part of the bell in beautifully clear and well- 
preserved, raised characters. The top part above 
the inscription is decorated with festoon work, the 
lower part plain. 

There was a HOSPITAL at Hutton in early times, 
but when, or by whom, it was established is not 
known. It was dedicated to the Apostle John. 
" Robert de Paxton, prior Hospitalis St. Johannis 
Jerisolm, apud Huton," and William, the guardian 
of the hospital, swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. 
No traces of the building are now to be seen ; 
indeed, the site cannot now be localised, but it is 
believed to have stood near the modern mansion of 
Spittal House. In one of the old Retours it is 
called Huttonspittal.* 

FISHWICK, prior to the year 1614, had a separate 
parochial existence. The church of Fishwick is 
very ancient. In 1150 Robert, the Bishop of 
St. Andrews, in the presence of the synod, which 
then sat at Berwick, confirmed to the monks of 
Coldingham the church of " Fishwic." This grant 
was confirmed by Robert III. (1390-1406). The 
advowson of the church continued in the possession 
of the monks of Coldingham till the Reformation. 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. Retourx, 
Berwickshire, No. fyW. 



136 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

As already stated. Fishwick was annexed to Hutton 
in 1614. 

The ruins of the ancient church, beautifully 
situated on the west bank of the river Tweed, 
nearly opposite the village of Horncliff, were 
removed about the year 1835, when a mortuary 
chapel was erected on their site by the proprietor 
of Broadmeadows. From the brief description 
given of them in the New Statistical Account of the 
parish, it would appear that the church had been 
" a very plain building, long and narrow, and of 
small dimensions. * 

The churchyard of Fishwick is now in disuse, 
and in a very neglected and dilapidated condition, 
the stones lying about in great confusion, and the 
ground overgrown with nettles and long grass. 

On a very large horizontal stone is the following 
inscription, which is much defaced : 

"Here lyes the corps of William Lyle who die 1711 and 
Helen Boumeker (?) his spous who Diod 1702 . . ." 

On a similar stone : 

" Heir was bvried Georg Maben 1612 and William Maben his 
sonne departed first of September 1666." 

On a very small stone : 

" I C 1642 
M S 164-." 

Another large horizontal stone bears : 

"Heir was bvried Christian Lyle anno 1648 and John 
Hutscheson her husband 1661." 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



HUTTON. 137 

On a similar stone : 

" I P. 
E R 1054." 

The following, on a large horizontal stone, is 
almost illegible : 

" 158 . . 

IIS 

G I 

H I." 

Another horizontal stone bears : 

"Heir lyes William Wilson 1656 and Robert 
Wilson his sone 1677 and Margie Blekiter his wife 
1675 

" Here lies William who deceased the " (there is a 
sudden break here ; the words have evidently been omitted). 

" And Allison King his spous who deceased the " 
(another break here). 

The following inscription, on a horizontal stone, 
is executed in a beautifully ornamental style : 

"Heir lyes the body of John Wilson who died 1690 arid 
Helen Aird His spous who died 1699 and John Wilson Grandchild 
who died 1716." 

Another horizontal stone, with grotesque and 
rudely-executed sculpture work, bears : 

" Heir was bvried John Hogard who died Anno 1640." 


The spelling in the following is amusing: 

"Here lays the boody of Beatrich Grac spows to Peeter 
. . who departed this lyfe Novembr the 2 1705." 

On a very small stone : 

"Mary Brovn 1647." 



138 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The words on a stone which bears some elaborate 
sculpture work are these : 

" Here lyes John Bald who died 1679." 

The following is a list of the ministers who have 
been in Hutton since 1571 : 

John Clapperton 1571 to 1576. 

John Home -1578 to 1585. 

William Methwen 1585 to 1586. 

Archibald Oswald, M. A. 1586 to 1594. 

Thomas Storie 1596 to 1597. 

Alexander Lumisdene, M. A. 1599 to 1607. 

Thomas Ogiluy 1607 to 1608. 

John Weemse, M.A. 1608 to 1613. 

Allan Lundie, M. A. 1614 to 1636. 

James Lundie 1636 to 1649. 

Patrick Hume 1649 to 1679. 

James Orr 1680 to . 

Gilbert Lawrie, M.A. 1693 to 1727. 

Robert Waugh*-1730 to 1756. 

Philip Ridpath 1759 to 1788. 

Adam Landels 1789 to 1821. 

John Edgar, M. A. 1821 to 1858. 

Robert Kirke, D.D. (present incumbent) 1858. 



* There was great opposition to the ordination of Waugh. 
The service had to be conducted under protection of the Sheriff, 
with upwards of a hundred military, although the doors of the 
church had been barricaded. Scott s Fasti Ecdesice, Scoticance. 



LADYKIRK. 139 



X a & \> fc 1 r fc. 

THE parish of Ladykirk comprehends the more 
ancient parishes of Upsetlington and Horndean. 

The church at present in use is a very interesting 
one, and, though of no great antiquity, has a 
peculiar and very romantic origin. As the story 
goes, James IV., when crossing a ford in the 
Tweed near by at the head of his army, was in 
danger of being swept away by the swollen 
current. While in this plight he prayed earnestly 
to the Virgin Mary for deliverance, and vowed that 
if he should be saved he would build a church in 
honour of " Our Lady." The erection which 
sprang up in fulfilment of this vow was called 
Ladykirk. 

The church is cruciform in plan, and consists of 
an aisleless nave with a tower at the west end, a 
chancel with a semi-hexagonal termination, and 
north and south transepts, or transeptal chapels, 
similar in form to the chancel. Internally the nave 
measures 41 feet 8 inches in length, by 23 feet 
3 inches in width ; the chancel is 36 feet long, and 
of the same width as the nave ; and the internal 
projection of the chapels is 15 feet 10 inches, and 
16 feet 4 inches, respectively. The style of the 
architecture, as might have been expected, is far 
from pure, and displays the strong leaning to 



140 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

First-Pointed forms so characteristic of Scottish 
Gothic in its latest phases. The walls are orna 
mented with nineteen buttresses, on the top of 
which are carved figures, some of them now much 
worn by time and want of due care. Two string 
courses are carried round the building a short 
distance above the basement, the upper one 
rounded above, the lower sloping, and both hollow 
or concave below. A slightly projecting cornice, 
with a hollow on the under side, runs along the top 
of the wall beneath the eaves. 

The windows are mostly plain, lanciform openings, 
divided into two pointed lights by a nominal 
branching at the top, an exception being the east 
window of the chancel, which is wider than the 
others of this form, and is divided into three lights 
by two monials branching and intersecting in the 
head. The three principal windows in the south 
wall, however, are different in style, being wide, 
depressed-segmental or elliptical-headed apertures, 
each containing three pointed lights. The exterior 
window jambs have, in every case, two outer 
plain-chamfered orders, and an inner or tracery 
order hollow-chamfered. The interior jambs consist 
of a plain splay, with a quirked edge-roll carried 
up round the rear arch. Over every window, 
except one in the north wall of the nave, is a label 
or dripstone, terminating at each side in a rudely- 
sculptured head. 

Entrance has been provided to the interior by 
three doorways, the principal one being at the west 
end of the south wall of the nave. It is round- 
headed ; the jambs are composed of two continuous 



LADYKIRK. 141 

filleted rolls, with a wide hollow between ; and the 
upper string course before described is carried 
round the head as a dripstone. The day light 
measures 8 feet from the ground to the crown of 
the arch, and is 5 feet in width. Another doorway 
of smaller dimensions, leading into the chancel 
through its south wall, displays in the jambs a 
single, continuous, filleted roll, the dripstone as in 
the first-mentioned example being merely a continu 
ation of the upper string course round the head. 
The third, which is in the north wall of the nave, is 
now concealed on the outside by a building 
recently erected to contain the heating apparatus 
of the church. There is a blocked doorway in the 
wall of the south transept, but it is evidently quite 
modern. 

The tower is of four stages, each of the three 
lower vaulted internally, but undistinguished on 
the outside except by small, rectangular, chamfered 
openings in the west face. The upper stage is 
modern (1743), and is surmounted by a kind of 
four-sided dome, with a belfry above, altogether 
out of harmony with the rest of the edifice. A 
wide, square-headed doorway, on the west side of 
the tower, affords access to the interior of the 
lowest or ground stage; and an assent to the 
upper stages is provided by a newel -stair, placed in 
a turret occupying the angle between the north 
wall of the tower and the west wall of the nave. 

The aspect of the interior of the church, though 
not wanting in impressiveness, is singularly bafd. 
It has a pointed vault, the plainness and barrenness 
of which are only partially relieved by a series of 



142 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

transverse ribs in the nave and chancel, and of 
shorter diagonal ones at its eastern and lateral 
extremities, all of them broadly chamfered, and 
resting on moulded corbels. The arches opening 
into the transepts are of two chamfered orders, 
rising from capitaled responds with mouldings of 
debased character. These, however, are wholly 
restorations, although they may probably be exact 
reproductions of the original work. The superin 
cumbent walls are carried above the roof outside, 
arid form gables which terminate the roofs of the 
transepts at their inner extremities a very unusual, 
if not altogether unique, feature.* 

On the interior western gable is a marble slab 

inscribed : 

"D. 0. M. 
Hanc eedem beat?e Virgin! Marise 

Sacram ab inclyto 
Jacobo quarto Scotorum rege 
anno post Christum natum 
M.D. Extructam at deinde 

temporis vetustate accolarumque 
incuria collapsatn etiam 
pene ruinis involutam Jam tandem 
fuudi parochialis domini, sua 
pecunia instaurandam curarunt 
l)enique campanili addito guliel- 
mus Robertsone a Ladykirk 
orandam curavit. 

MDCCXLIIL 
Restituta MDCCCLXI." 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. Mr. Ferguson s 
description of the architectural features of this church is given 
here at considerable length. It possesses a special value in this 
case from the fact that Ladykirk was one of the last pre-Refor- 
mation churches erected in Scotland, and is still substantially 
unimpaired. 



LADYKIRK. 143 

The latter date, 1861, refers to the renovation of 
the church clearing out the partitions and furnish 
ings of the portion used as the parish school, 
cleaning the entire walls, reseating, and heating. 
Immediately under the Latin inscription is a brass 
plate with the following inscription from the pen of 
the late Lady Marjory Marjoribanks of Ladykirk : 

" The clock in the tower of this church was given by the Right 
Honourable Marianne Sarah Robertson Baroness Marjoribanks 
of Ladykirk in grateful remembrance of, and thankfulness for 
many mercies and blessings vouchsafed to and enjoyed by her 
during her possession of the estate, and also in thankful com 
memoration of the 14th day of October, 1881, when, amidst a 
wind storm of unusual severity, disastrous in its effects to persons 
and property both on sea and on land, and appalling to all people, 
a merciful Providence was graciously pleased to protect this 
parish and its inhabitants, by the preservation of human life 
within its bounds. 1882." 

A curious old oak chest stands in the south 
transept, richly carved, and bearing inscriptions on 
its upper surface and on one side. Round the top 
margin are these words : 

"It is more blessed to give then too receive. Gods worst is 
better than the worldes best." 

On the inner surface, forming the two longer 
sides of a rectangle, are the words : 

" Saynt Nycholas." 
" Liverpool." 

In the central space enclosed by the rectangle is 
the following : 

" Man shal not live by 
Bread alone but by everie 
Worde that procedeth out 
Of "the mouth of ye lord." 



144 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 
On the front side along the upper margin : 

" 16 1 Edward Williamson s gift to ye trulye poore and aged of ys Psh | 51." 

Along the lower margin : 

" My trust is in God alone." 

In the space between these marginal readings : 

" I was hungrie and ye gave me meat. I was thirstie and ye 
gave me drink. A stranger and ye tooke me in, naked ye 
clothed me. I was sick and ye visited me." 

This old oak chest was placed where it now stands 
in Ladykirk church on 23d October, 1885, as a gift 
from the Lady Marjoribanks of Ladykirk. A year 
or two elapsed, when suddenly a lengthened corres 
pondence sprang up (having its origin at Liverpool), 
in magazines and by letter, between the church 
wardens of St. Nicholas Church, Liverpool, and 
the Rev. William Dobie, minister of Ladykirk. 
The Antiquary, Liverpool Mercury, and even The 
Scotsman had a hand in the discussion which arose 
as to whether the chest was the " original " or a 
mere " copy," and no definite conclusion has, as yet, 
been arrived at. The subject has in the meantime 
dropt. The churchwardens at Liverpool and The 
Antiquary think the venerable chest is "a lie in oak," 
and should be burnt. Visitors are divided in 
opinion, while the minister of Ladykirk thinks, be 
it the original or " a modern antique," it is worthy 
of being preserved, and he intends to do so, were 
it only because it was purchased for, and gifted to 
this church by the now deceased Lady Marjoribanks 
of Ladykirk, whose memory he cherishes with 
sincere affection. 



LADYKIRK. 145 

Upon an inlaid stone, inserted in the exterior 
wall above the chancel door, there is the following 
inscription : 

" D. O. M. 

" Jacobus Scotorum quartus rex teudam. 
Tuto quum transuisset hanc a^dem votam 
Marine Virgin! ad deum unum solumque 
Spiritu vcritateque colendum railesitno 
Quingentesimo annoque jubil&o fundavit."* 

There are pits on the freestone wall of Lady kirk 
church which some attribute to the effects of the 
weather, others to stray missiles from artillery of 
Norham Castle ; the latter is not at all improbable. 

In the churchyard there is nothing as yet 
disclosed that can be considered remarkable. The 
older stones are so weathered as to render it quite 
impossible to decipher the inscriptions. 



" The above record," says the Rev. William Dobie, minister 
of the parish, "is not older than the present (19th) century." 

The same authority says : " There is evidence above the 
main south door, on the outside, that a tablet had been inserted 
there at some time, but the tablet, with whatever it might have 
told, has long ago entirely disappeared ; while on the outside, 
and directly above the north door, and looking to Scotland, 
there is similar evidence that a tablet had been once placed there, 
and tradition has it that the Royal arms of Scotland, decorated 
with the Order of the Garter, were carved on that now lost stone. 
It is not disputed that Henry VII. of England did compliment 
James IV. of Scotland with the Order of the Garter, and in 
the then circumstances of both kings nothing was more appro 
priate, as James was about to marry Margarita Henrici nata 
major filia an event which took place on the 8th August, 1503, 
and in its consequences was so important as, in the third 
generation, to unite the two crowns of England and Scotland 
in the year 1603." Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



146 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

These lines appear on a large stone erected to 
the memory of two children : 

" Ere sin could blight or sorrow fade, 
Death came with friendly care, 
The opening bud to Heaven conveyed, 
And bade it blossom there." 

On a small, plain stone, the oldest legible, is this 
inscription : 

" Here lyes the body of Patrick Blair who died November 7 
1738 his age 37 years." 

The ancient parish of UPSETLINGTON, now 
included in Ladykirk, probably existed in the 12th 
century, although we have no mention of it until 
the year 1296, when " Henry de Strivelin," parson 
or rector of Upsetlington, swore fealty to Edward 
I. at Berwick. In the year 1327 Abraham Crichton 
was rector of Upsetlington. The supplementary 
treaty of Chateau Cambresis, entered into between 
Francis and Mary, King and Queen of Scotland, 
and Elizabeth, Queen of England, was signed on 
31st May, 1559, in the ancient church of Saint 
Mary of Upsetlington. 

About a quarter of a mile north of the hamlet of 
Upsetlington is the site of the " Rectoria de 
Upsetlington," or, as it is written in the tax roll of 
St. Andrews, " Saint Mary s Church of Upsetlington." 
About half way down the declivity to the lip of the 
Tweed lies the only remnant of the rectory a block 
of stone, squarish, weather-worn fit memorial of 
the to Kuriakon i.e., the something that belonged 
to the master ; now prostrate, but enduring still.* 

* Rev. William Dobie. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



LADYKIRK. 147 

Near the site of the ancient village of Upsetling- 
ton there existed in early times a well called 
St. Mary s well, the water of which still ripples into 
the ravine below. A memorial in the shape of a 
watering trough for cattle was erected near the 
spot about the beginning of the present century by 
the then proprietor William Robertson, Esq., which 
bears the inscription " Well of St. Mary of 
Upsetlington." A short distance from this stands 
a square modern pillar, upon a platform, about ten 
feet high, inscribed " Ann s Well." 

The ancient parish of HORNDEAN was also 
included in this parish. The church or chapel of 
Horndean is mentioned about the middle of the 
12th century. " William de Vetereponte" acquired 
the manor of Horndean during the 12th century. 
He transferred the church of Horndean to the 
monks of Kelso. The grant of Vetereponte was 
confirmed by Bishop Hugh, who ruled the diocese 
of St. Andrews from 1177 to 1188.* 

In the Pontificale Ecclesiae S. Andrews, among 
the churches dedicated by David de Bernham, 
Bishop of Saint Andrews, we find " Eccl. de 
Hornerden " eodem anno (1243) 4th April 
(dedicata).f 

There was also a HOSPITAL founded at Horndean 
during the 12th century. Robert Byset, who 
owned the manor of Upsetlington on the Tweed, 
founded in the reign of David I. (1124-1153) a 
hospital, which he dedicated to St. Leonard at 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 

t Rev. William Dobie. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



148 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Horndean. The master of that hospital witnessed 
a charter of Hyde de Simprine during the short 
reign of Malcolm IV. (1153-1165). Robert Byset 
granted this hospital with its pertinents to the 
monks of Kelso, on condition that their abbot 
should keep a chaplain there ; and should maintain 
in it two poor persons, whom the donor and his heirs 
should have the right of placing therein. At the 
end of the 13th century those monks had, at 
Horndean, this hospital, with 16 acres of land, a 
fishing in the Tweed, and a park within the manor 
of Upsetliugton, for which they thought themselves 
obliged to support a chaplain for celebrating divine 
service in the hospital chapel, and to maintain 
two paupers under the pious donation of Byset.* 

No trace whatever is left of the hospital of 
St. Leonard, in the same parish ; but the charter 
by Robert Byseth, Lord of Upsetlington, conferring 
it on Kelso Abbey, indicates that it stood between 
Horndean and the Tweed juxta Twede ex opposite 
de Horwerden.^ 

Horndean ceased to be a separate parish about 
the year 1576. 

The old burial ground of Horndean stands in the 
centre of an open field within about 200 paces of 
the Tweed. It is surrounded by a low broken- 
down wall. There are about a score of old stones 
confusedly scattered about in a sadly neglected 
condition, sheep and cattle having free access to 
the place. Unless some means are speedily adopted 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 
t Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



LADYKIRK. 149 

to protect the few sacred memorials, these, it is 
greatly to be feared, will soon entirely disappear. 
Owing to their mined and fragmentary condition, 
only one seventeenth century stone has its inscrip 
tion (and that only partially) legible. It is a large 
horizontal stone with these words : 

"Heir lys George Bell 1663 and Besi Brekentn 
his wife 1658." 

On a very small stone : 

" Heir lais the body of Gorg Park ci who died Meay 17 
and Brak who deid Mearch 2 1745." 

On a medium-sized stone : 

" Here layes the body of Peter Brown who died March 10 1741) 
His age 28 years." 

A small stone, with the most beautiful and 
exquisitely chiselled sculpture work, is inscribed : 

" Heir lyes the corps of Willeam Cunningham mason 
in Horendon who died . March th 3 1753 his age 50 
years." 

On a small stone : 

" Here * lyes the body * of Mergret Cunningham spous 
to William Frisken who died May th 12 1743 aged 61." 

These words, on a very small stone, are almost 
illegible : 

" Here lyes the body of James Henderson who deid Apr. . . 
1716." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Ladykirk since 1576 : 



150 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Andrew Winsister 1576 to 1585. 

John Home 1607 to . 

David Hume, M. A. 1635 to 1650. 

William Craufurd, M. A. 1651 to 1690. 

William Gullan 1694 to 1697. 

Samuel Kilpatrick, M. A. -1697 to 1711. 

George Ridpath, M. A. 1712 to 1740. 

John Todd 1741 to 1786. 

Thomas Mill-1788 to 1800. 

George Todd 1801 to 1819. 

George Home Robertson 1819 to 1842. 

William A. Corkindale 1842 to 1845. 

John Stevenson, D.D. 1855 to 1859. 

William Dobie (present incumbent) 1859. 

At Horndean there is a United Presbyterian 
Church built in 1786, and enlarged in 1812. The 
present minister is James F. G. Orr, M.A., settled 
in 1896. 



LANGTON. 151 



Xangton, 

THE church of Langton is ancient. During the 
reign of David I. (1124-1153) the manor of Langton, 
with the advowson of the church, belonged to 
Roger de Ow, a Northumbrian follower of Prince 
Henry. Roger de Ow granted to the monks of 
Kelso the church of Langton. From him the estate 
passed to William de Vetereponte, or Vipont, who 
continued to these monks the church with its tithes 
and lauds. In 1296, John, vicar of Langton, swore 
fealty to Edward I. at Berwick, and had his rights 
restored.* 

In the year 1684 the church seems to have been 
in such a condition as to require no repairs, the 
report of the commissioners at the parochial visita 
tion of that year, called by order of the Bishop of 
Edinburgh, while Patrick Walker was minister, 
having been satisfactory. At the next visitation 
in 1700 the Presbytery are said to have found 
" several things necessary to compleat y e same," 
and the moderator, by their appointment, " recom 
mend y e persons concerned to see to y e repair y r of." 
At the third visitation in 1721 they discovered 
that "the roof was in ill condition," and in 1727 

* Chalmers Caledonia. 



152 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

it fell to the ground. It then underwent thorough 
repair, and stood till the more modern edifice was 
erected in 1798 at the village of Gavinton, half-a- 
mile from the old site.* 

In the old, and now disused, burial-ground at 
Langtori there is what seems to have been the 
chancel of the church, long since converted into a 



* Here is a sworn statement, made by the then minister and 
others, showing the state of the church and parish in 1627 : 

" At the kirk of Langtoun the eight day off Junj 1627 yeiris 
Mr Samuel Sinclar Minister thair and with him, &c., &c. 

" Imprimis the number off communicantis foure hundreth 
and fyftie and formetymes fy ve hundreth the parochin is off thre 
mylles off lenth and one off bredth. The Kirk standis almaist 
in the middes off the paroch quhair thair is the greittest conflu 
ence off pepill duelling twa myllis from the remotest pairt on the 
on syd and a myll distant from the remotest on the other. This 
kirk wes neuir vnited. It is ane auld kirk off the abbacie off 
Kelso. Sir William Cockburn off Langtoun knight patron to 
the vicarage of Langtoun since the tyme off reformatioun. The 
ministeris stipend is five chalderis cherittit victuell off Louthiane 
mett twa pairt ait meill thrid pairt beir with the viccarage off 
the parochin quhilk is thus vplifted. Sir William Cokburn of 
Langtoun knicht he payes tuentie pund to the minister for the 
viccarages of his haill manissis Johne Cokburn vncle to the said 
Williame he vplif tes the rest of the vicarage of the paroch by ane 
Inueteratt possession and payes nothing for it. The Minister 
possesses and vplif tes the vicarage off syne roumes to wit Chouslie 
Ladyflat Greitrig Quhithill and Craes and the teind hay off the 
rest of the parochin except off the Laird off Langtoun his manissis 
befoir exceptit. Item the minister vpliftes ten merkis as feu 
maillis off the vicaris landis quhilk hes bein in vse to have bein 
payit to his predecessouris vicaris of Langtoun be the gudman 
of Chouslie titular to the vicaris landis. 

" The Minister his stipend is payit be the Abbottis or Lordis 
off Kelso. 

" There is no hospitallis nor foundatioun for them nor chaip- 
lainries prebendaries nor freir landis within the parochin so far 
as we knaw." Reports on the State of Certain Parishes in Scotland. 



LANGTON. 153 

burial-vault. 22 feet wide by 20 feet long externally. 
It is situated a little to the south-east of Langton 
House. At the west end of this vault, and pro 
jecting about a foot laterally, there is a small frag 
ment of what must have been the north wall of 
the nave ; but the whole bears evident marks of 
having been repeatedly altered, and probably not 
one original detail is left. The east elevation 
contains two small round-headed windows of ap 
parently seventeenth century date, 6 feet apart, 
each 27 inches high by 14 inches wide.* 

There are a number of old stones in the burial- 
ground at Langton, but the place is in a wretched 
condition, so overgrown with nettles and long rank 
grass that several of even the tall stones are com 
pletely overgrown and hid from view. 

On a very small stone only the date 1656 is 
legible. 

The following appears on the upper surface of a 
small, clumsy stone : 

"James Lamb 1671." 
On a similar stone : 

" Hear lyeth Jarnes Watherston who died 12 of Janwavr 
1712." 

A small, neatly-carved stone bears : 

" Hear lyes Jean Cvrriie who dyed March 21 1707 and James 
Cvrrie who dyed Febr. 6 1708. Son and daughter to Robert 
Cvrrie." 

A tall, very slender stone is inscribed : 
" Hir lys Alexander Wer 1620." 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



154 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The date 1605 appears on a stone of most 
elaborate and artistic design. The other part of 
the inscription is defaced beyond recognition. 

On a small, thick stone : 

" Adam Gall way of years was 81 yet to this world of them 
was dead 11 Feb 1683." 

Within a square pannel of a richly-carved stone : 
" John Cockburne 1686." 

On a small, plain stone : 

" Here lies Wiliam Bour (?) and James Lovri his son 1710." 

In Langton Wood, opposite Hainingrig, there is 
the site of a nonjurors chapel, which was erected 
in 1676, but no vestige now remains. 

The church at present in use was erected in 1872 
as the successor of, and on the same site as, that 
which was erected in 1798. It is a neat building 
in the Gothic style, with a handsome tower. The 
interior is light and exceedingly comfortable. At 
the west end above the pulpit is a beautiful, stained- 
glass window. 

The stones in the churchyard are all compara 
tively modern. 

These lines appear on a medium-sized stone : 

" The rosebud droop d 
But free d from sin and toil 
May bloom afresh in more 
Congenial soil." 

On a similar stone : 

" One by one we cross the river. 
One by one we re passing o er. 
One by one the crowns are given 
On the bright and happy shore." 



LANGTON. 155 

The communion plate consists of two silver cups, 
engraved : 

" DAVID GAVIN us DE LANGTON NUPER APUD MIDDELBURGUM IN 
ZEALANDIA MERCATOR ECCLESIAE DE LANGTON DONO DEDIT. ANNO 
DOM : MlLLESIMO SEPTINGENTKSIMO SEXAGESIMO PRIMO." 

A curious old relic in the shape of a hand-bell is 
still preserved. It was probably used as a death- 
bell. It bears the inscription : 

" FOR JOHN GALLAVA IN LANTUN 1685." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Langton since 1585 : 

John Home 1585 to 1586. 
William Meth wen 1586 to 1595. 
James Gaittis 1596 to 1607. 
Samuel Sinclair, M. A. -1607 to 1653. 
John Burne, M. A. 1659 to 1672. 
Robert Happer 1677 to 1681. 
Luke Ogle, M.A.1679 to 1682. 
Patrick Walker, M. A. 1682 to 1689. 
John Dysart, M. A. 1691 to 1694. 
John Dawson, M. A. 1698 to 1726. 
James Dawson, M.A. 1727 to 1733. 
James Laurie, M. A. 1734 to 1757. 
David Johnston 1758 to 1765. 
Andrew Smith 1766 to 1789. 
Alexander Girvan 1789 to 1809. 
John Brown 1810 to 1843. 
David Dunlop 1844 to 1864. 
Robert Stormonth Darling 1864 to 1867. 
James L. Blake 1867 to 1892. 
John Peattie, M. A. 1892 to . 



* Brown, on joining in the Free Secession, was declared no 
longer a minister of this church, 20th June, 1843. Scott s Fasti 
Ecclesiae Scoticanae, 



156 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Within a short distance of the parish church is 
Gaviuton Free Church, a neat building, erected in 
1843, altered and improved in 1884. The present 
minister is Johnstone Walker, M.A., settled in 1880. 



LAUDER. 157 



Xauber. 

THE church of Lander existed at a period not later 
than the middle of the twelfth century. During 
the reign of David I. (1124-1153) the advowson of 
the church belonged to Hugh Morville, who enjoyed 
from that king almost the whole of Lauderdale. 
Malcolm IV. (1153-1165) confirmed to the monks 
of Dryburgh " terra ilia quam kisth, clericus, tenuit 
de avo meo de ecclesia de Cadisleya," and the 
chapel of St. Leonards, and these chapels Kedslie 
and St. Leonards were subordinate to Lauder as 
the mother church. In 1268, through his wife, 
Devorgilla, a descendant of the De Morvilles, it came 
into the possession of John Baliol, who resigned it 
to the monks of Dryburgh, in whose possession it 
remained as a vicarage till the Reformation. In 
1296, William Fitzaleyn, "le clerc de Laweder," 
swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick.* 

In this church, in 1482, the Scottish nobility 
held their famous conference, which resulted in 
the seizure of James III., and the murder of his 
favourites, who, as old Pitscottie says, were hanged 
" over the bridge of Lather befoir the king s eyes. 
Both bridge and church have long since been 



* Chalmers Caledonia. Chartulary of Dryburyh. 



158 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

demolished. The latter stood on the north side of 
the town, facing Lauder fort, which now forms 
part of Thirlestane Castle.* 

Reference has already been made to two chapelries 
subordinate to Lauder the CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN, 
near Kedslie, and that of St. Leonards. The former 
stood on the west side of the Leader, five miles 
south of Lauder, and the place still bears the name 
of Chapel-on-Leader. As already indicated, this 
chapel existed in the reign of Malcolm IV. (1153- 
1165). Further than this we have no information 
about its history. 

The CHAPEL OF ST. LEONARDS stood about two 
miles directly south of Lauder, and a mile north of 
the village of Blainslie. Its churchyard is still in 
existence, but, sad to relate, only a solitary frag 
ment of a tombstone remains. Its elegant design 
is still traceable, and part of the inscription as 
follows : 

"... 1733. As also Thomas Darling his grandson who 
deperted this life the 16 of July 1747 aged 22 years." 

What appear to be the foundations of the chapel 
are dimly traceable, arid measure 60 feet long by 
40 feet wide. 

In addition to the chapel there was also a 
HOSPITAL at St. Leonards. There is a building 
here, which is occupied as a farm-house, part of 
which appears to be very old. and the walls are 
nearly 4 feet thick. It is just possible highly 
probable, indeed that this formed part of the 



* Mr. Ferguson. #7^. Ber. Nat, Club, 1890. 



LAUDER. 159 

hospital building. There are two stones built into 
the south wall, one of which is inscribed thus : 



A M 



The other stone, which forms the lintel of a 
window, bears the following: 

"8^ Devs . est . fons . vitae. 
" I . thrist . for . the . vater . of . lif." 

The present church, which is situated in the 
centre of the town of Lauder, was built in 1763 ; 
since then it has undergone frequent repairs, the 
last of which was in 1820. The building is cruci 
form, each arm of the cross being equal. The 
dome rises from the centre, and rests on four arches, 
which are built of red freestone at present.covered 
over with plaster. Originally there seem to have 
been no windows except in the end gables, and 
these are of considerable size, and are semi-Gothic, in 
harmony with the arches on which the dome rests. 
The windows in the side walls which have been 
inserted at a later date, and also those under the 
larger windows in the gables, are square, and give 
the whole a mixed architectural appearance. The 
church is large and commodious, being seated for 
750. 



* It is the opinion of Dr. Hardy, than whom there is no one 
better qualified to form a correct judgment, that the initials 
" M. A. H." are those of Master Andrew Home, "Pensionary 
and Rector of Lauder, who secured the property for himself 
and his illegitimate son William, when Dryburgh Abbev was 
dissolved." 



160 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The bell is a very large one, and is said to hold 
six bushels. It bears the following inscription : 

" Given by Charles Maitland, his Majesty s treasurer depute 
1681. John Milne Fecit Edinr. recast by James Earl of Lauder- 
dale out of the vacant stepends 1751 and recut again 1834." 

There are two communion cups (the gift of the 
notorious Duchess of Lauderdale), engraved with 
the Lauderdale and Murray arms. Two silver 
flagons have, in addition to Lauderdale and Murray 
arms, the following inscription engraved on their 
lids: 

" A GIFT TO THE CHURCH OF LAUDEB AUGUST THE 10TH ANNO 

DOMINI 1677." 

The following entry appears in kirk-session 
records: " Lauder, 1677, Nov. 3. This day there 
was preiented to the Minister two Cuppes with 
covers and two Flagons, all of silver, with keepers 
of leather sent in Guift from my Lady Duchess of 
Lauderdale for the use of the Church of Lauder." 

In the churchyard there are many handsome 
stones, besides a few old and interesting ones. 

An old stone, built into the back wall of the 
churchyard, whose inscription is so weathered as 
to be almost illegible, bears date 1671, and the 
following lines : 

" Here lyes interred ane honest man, 
Who did this churchyard first lie in ; 
This monument shall make it known 
That he was the first laid in this ground. 
Of masoa and of masonrie, 
He cutted stones right curiously. 
To heaven we hope that he is gone, 
Where Christ is the chief corner-stone." 



LAUDER. 161 

Another stone in the churchyard wall is in 
scribed : 

" Here lys the body of Master Thomas Mabone minister of 
the gospel at Gordein thereafter Schoolmaster of Lauder who 
died the 12 day of Febr Anno Dom 1711 his age 58. 

" Here lys also the body of Isabel Home spous to the said 
Mr Mabone who died the first of Aprile 1708 age 54. 

" With Thomas and Grissall Maboris their children." 

On the back of an old stone is another version of 
the familiar lines : 

" Stop passenger as you pass bye 
As you are nou so once was i 
As i am nou so you must be 
prepare prepare to follow me." 

On a small stone : 

"NT MH JR IB 

" George Ren wick * Burying place who hath been in Europ 
Asia Af erica." 

There is elaborate sculpture work on the other side 
of this stone. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Lauder since 1567 : 

Ninian Borth wick -1567 to 1574. 
William Frank -1574 to 1576. 
John Knox, M. A.* 1576 to 1582. 
Alexander Lauder, M. A. 1584 to 1613. 
James Burnet, M. A. 1615 to 1636. 
James Guthrie, M. A. 1642 to 1649. 
William Johnstone, M.A. 1652 to 1659. 
David Forrester, M. A. 1661 to 1684. 
John Lumsden, M.A. 1685 to 1689. 
William Abercromby, M. A. 1693 to 1697. 



Knox was grand-nephew of the great Reformer. 

L 



162 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Andrew Uuncanson, M.A. 1700 to 1706. 

George Logan, M. A. 1707 to 1718. 

Thomas Pitcairnes 1720 to 1835. 

James Lindsay 1736 to 1746. 

Robert Fisher 1747 to 1753. 

James Ford, M.A. 1753 to 1810. 

Peter Cosens 1811 to 1845. 

William Smith 1845 to 1858. 

Donald Macleod 1858 to 1862. 

James Micldleton, M. A. 1862 to 1874. 

A. B. S. Watson, B.D. 1875 to 1876. 

Thomas Martin, M.A. (present incumbent) 1876. 

The Free Church was erected in 1843. The 
building externally is very plain, but internally one 
of the most pleasing and comfortable. The present 
minister is Duncan Turner, settled in 1882. 

The United Presbyterian Church is a plain struc 
ture of moderate size, erected in 1841. The present 
minister is Thomas Keir, M.A., settled in 1885. 



LEGERWOOD. 163 



THERE is evidence of the existence of a church 
at Legerwood in the early part of the twelfth 
century, John, priest of " Ledgaresude," having 
been one of the witnesses to a charter granted in 
1127 by Robert, bishop of St. Andrews, in favour 
of the priory of Coldingham. It would seem, 
shortly after this, to have come into the possession 
of the abbey of Paisley. Walter, son of Alan de 
Lauder, granted the church of " Legerwode," with 
its pertinents, to the monks whom he brought from 
Shropshire to Paisley. Subsequently this grant 
was confirmed by Malcolm IV. (1153-1165), and 
also by his successor, William I. (1165-1214). The 
church continued with those monks, who served 
the cure by a vicar till the Reformation. Walter, 
vicar of Legerwood, swore fealty to Edward I. at 
Berwick, 28th August, 1296. On 30th May, 1453, 
Thomas de Fersith, vicar of Legerwood, obtained 
from the English king a passport for three years to 
visit, as a pilgrim, the shrine of the apostles.* 

The original edifice, of which no inconsiderable 
portion still remains, was built in the Norman 
period, probably not later than 1130. It has con- 

* Chalmers Caledonia. 



164 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

sisted of a nave and a narrower and very short 
chancel. The nave, which is about 50 feet long 
by 27 feet wide externally, has been used as the 
parish church since the Reformation ; but a series 
of repairs and alterations, the first of which seems 
to have been executed in 1717, with the usual 
disregard to the original character of the building, 
has completely obliterated every early feature 
except the chancel-arch, which, although blocked 
up and otherwise disfigured, is apparently quite 
entire. So far as the details can be seen, it 
appears to consist of two semi-circular orders, each 
square-edged on the side next the chancel, but on 
that next the nave moulded into a wide quarter- 
hollow and half-round. On the same side are 
visible two bearing-shafts in each jamb, having 
cushion-capitals, with square abaci chamfered below, 
and adorned on their faces with a band of the sunk 
star ornament, which is continued along the wall 
at each side of the angles. The same ornament 
appears, arranged in square panels, and with slight 
variations of form, on most of the capitals them 
selves, one notable exception being that of the 
inner pillar of the north jamb, which displays on 
the outer face a peculiar engrailed or reversed 
scolloped ornament of a somewhat inartistic type. 
The outer capital of this jamb has a rude kind of 
knob, or volute, on the angle immediately below 
the abacus. On the opposite jamb, the half of the 
inner capital has been cut or broken aw r ay to make 
room for a hat peg! The shafts rise from round 
bases, convex in profile, and resting on square 
plinths, which are covered by the soil. The widtli 



LEGERWOOD. 165 

of the arch, measured between the extremities of 
the jpmbs, is fully 15 feet; the height from the 
bottom of the plinths on which the shafts rest to 
the top of the imposts is nearly 8 feet, and from the 
imposts to the crown of the arch 5 feet.* 

The chancel, which is now exterior, and forms 
the Moristoun burial-aisle, is roofless, and its walls 
have been considerably reduced in height. Many 
of the original details, however, are left, and these 
are interesting. In each of the four corners there 
is a massive projecting shaft, which, in all proba 
bility, supported the groin ribs of the vaulted stone 
roof. There are traces of two old windows, one of 
which is situated about the middle of the north 
wall, and the other in the east elevation. They 
are narrow and round-headed, and bear indications 
of rich artistic design. Other ornamentations 
appear on different parts of the walls, all of which 
seem to be of Norman date, and testify to the 
genuine antiquity of this part of the building. In 
this aisle is the tomb of John Ker of Moristoun and 
his wife, that noble heroine, Grizel Cochrane. It 
was she who robbed the postman near Belford of 
the warrant for her father, Sir John Cochrane of 
Ochiltree s, execution. Sir John was leagued with 
Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth in the political 
troubles of the reign of James VII. By this means 
she succeeded in delaying her father s execution 
till successful intercession was made for his life. 

The tomb consists of a handsome monument with 
massive pillars on each side. It contains the arms 

* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



166 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

of Ker of Moristoun, with the date 1691 in bold 
characters, and the initial letters "I. K.," one on 
each side. 

The inscription on the slab runs thus : 

" HER RESTS THE CORPS OF JOHN KER 
OF MORISTOUN WHO DEPARTED THIS 
LIFE THE 27 OF SEPTEMBER 1691 IN 
THE THRETIETH YEAR OF HIS AGE. 

" AS ALSO THE CORPS OF 
GRISSELL COCHRANE HIS LADY 
WHO DIED THE 21 OF MARCH 
1748 IN THE 83n YEAR OF 
HER AGE." 

The following appears on the same stone, and 
has been recently re-lettered : 

" THE GRISSELL COCHRANE HERE 
REFERRED TO IS THE SAME WHO SO 
HEROICALLY SUCCEEDED IN SAVING 
THE LIFE OF HER FATHER 

THE HONBLE SIR JOHN COCHRANE OF OCHILTREE 
2ND SON OF THE IST EARL OF 
DUNDONALD THEN UNDER 
SENTENCE OF DEATH AT EDINBURGH 
OWING TO HIS CONNECTION WITH 
THE POLITICAL TROUBLES 
OF 1685." 

On a large, very plain horizontal stone, lying flat 
on the ground, appears in large letters the first of 
the above inscriptions. 

Built into the exterior wall of the Moristoun aisle, 
on the east, is a neat memorial tablet, inscribed 
thus : 

" Here lyes Sibela Hume spouse to John Moffat of East 
Moristoun who died the 10 of October 1719 aged 71 years." 



LEGERWOOD. I(i7 

Another memorial stone, built into the same wall, 
has its inscription almost completely obliterated. 

A very small stone in this wall bears in very 
illegible characters the letters : 

"B M y 

1767." 

The church interior is somewhat after the old- 
fashioned style. The seats are bare and uncom 
fortable, and the paved stone passages impart to 
the place a feeling of coldness, unrelieved by the 
dullness and monotony of bare walls. It is well 
lighted and lofty. The old Norman arch already 
referred to is an object of special interest alike to 
the antiquary and ecclesiologist. The exterior of 
the building is plain. There is an old stone built 
into the front wall, on which are inscribed some 
characters which are so confused as to be quite 
undecipherable. A stone built into one of the walls 

is inscribed : 

" Repaired 1717." 

Another stone in the front wall states that it was 
" Repaired 1804." 

There is an interesting old sundial attached to 
one of the corners of the church, and inscribed 

thus : 

"M 

W G 

1682." 

The communion plate consists of an old cup, 
inscribed : 

" THE GIFT OF M* 3 JEAN TROTTER RELICT OF Y K REVI> M 
WILLIAM CALDEKWOOD 1717, LATE MINISTER OF Y^ GOSPEL ut 

LlGKBWOOD." 



168 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

In this parish in early times there was a lazar- 
house, or HOSPITAL, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. 
It is supposed to have been founded by Walter, 
son of Alan de Lauder, who obtained this manor 
from Malcolm IV. (1153-1165). In 1296 Nicol 
de Lychardeswode, the chaplain, guardian of the 
hospital at Lychardeswode, swore fealty to Edward 
I., and, no doubt, had his forfeited revenues 
restored.* 

The hospital was situated at " Auldenestun/ and 
belonged to the abbey of Melrose. There is a 
charter relating to it in the Melrose Chartulary, 
entitled " Carta leprosorum de Moricestun." This 
would seem to indicate that the hospital was in the 
neighbourhood of Morriston.t 

In the churchyard the most noteworthy stone 
is that which commemorates the Rev. William 
Calderwood. It is a handsome stone, richly orna 
mented with elaborate carved work along the sides, 
and resting on six pedestals about 3 feet high. The 
inscription runs thus : 

"Here . lyes . that . pious . and . faithfull . servant . of . 
Jesus . Christ . the . Reverend . M r . William . Calderwood . 
who . was . admitted . minister . of . this . parioch . of . Ligert- 
wood . June . 12, . 1655 . where . he . laboured . in . the . work . of . 
the . Gospel . till . he . was . turned . out . for . not . conforming . 
to . Prelacy . an . 1662 . an d . then . he . frequently . tho . 
privately . visited . that . Parioch . till . the . Episcopal . 
minister . was . turned . out . that . he . returned . to . his . 
work . Septr. 8, . 1689 . and . continued . therein . till . his . 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 

t Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. Liber de 
Melrose, &c. 



LEGERWOOD. 169 

death . which . was . June . 19 . 1709 . being . the . 81 . year . 
of . his . age . and . the . 54 . of . his . ministry. 

" This monument was put up by his Relict Jean Trotter. 

" Repaired by some of the Parishioners 1838. 

Another large and finely-decorated horizontal 
stone is thus inscribed : 

" Here lyes William Montgomry of Makbiehill who deceased 
the 9 day of December 1689 his age 63 years. 

" Repaired by the Right Honble. James Montgomery Lord 
Chieff Baron of the Court of Excheqwer the grandson of the 
above Wm Montgomery 1798." 

The following appears on a medium-sized stone : 

" Hire : lays : James : Graham : leat : tennant : in : Thorni- 
dick : who : died : Aprile : 26 : 1758 : aged : 66 : years : also : 
Janet : Pringle : 15 : 1770 : aged : 61 : years : also : Androw : 
& : Janet : Grahams : there : grand : children :" 

Over the grave of a very young child is a neat 
wooden slab with these beautiful lines : 

" The Lord He gave and He will take, 

So blessed be His name, 
We ll bear it all for Jesus sake, 
The Lamb who once was slain." 

The following is a list of the ministers of Leger- 
wood since 1592 : 

David Forsyth 1592 to 1593. 

George Byris, M. A. 1593 to 1640. 

Thomas Byris, M.A. (assistant) 1634 to 1653. 

William Calderwood, M.A. 1655 to 1662. 

Thomas Byres, M.A. (reinstated) -1666 to 1682. 

Gideon Broun, M.A. (colleague) 1666 to 1676. 

William Layng, M.A. (colleague and successor) 1677 to 1689. 

William Calderwood, M.A. (reinstated) 1689 to 1709. 

James Campbell, M. A. 1711 to 1714. 

Thomas Old, M.A. 1717 to 1737. 

Walter Douglass, M. A. 1738 to 1752. 



170 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

William Gullan 1753 to 1792. 

Robert Scott 1793 to 1795. 

James Baird 1795 to 1797. 

James Young* 1797 to 1798. 

Henry Garnock 1799 to 1811. 

George Cupples 1812 to 1833. 

John Hunter Walker 1834 to 1844. 

James Macnair 1844 to 1853. 

James Langwill 1853 to 1859. 

Archibald Brown 1859 to 1891. 

William Kankiri (present incumbent) 1891. 



* Young was licensed by the Presbyterian class of South 
Northumberland in 1782, was minister of Kirkly and Glanton 
respectively, and admitted to Legerwood in 1797 ; his settlement 
here was rescinded by the General Assembly in 1798, he not 
being qualified according to the laws of the Church. This 
decision so affected his spirits that he died of a broken heart at 
Coldstream, 23d January, 1799. Scott s Fasti Ecclcsion ticoticanw. 



LOXGFORMACUS. 171 



Xongformacus. 

THIS parish is made up of the two old parishes of 
Longformacus and Ellara, united in 1712. We 
have no information bearing on the foundation and 
early history of the church of Lougformacus. 
From the 13th century till the Reformation the 
barony, with the advowson of the church, was held 
in succession by Morthington of Morthington, the 
Earls of Moray, the Earls of Marsh, and a branch of 
the St. Glairs of Koslin.* This is about the extent 
of the information, meagre as it is, that we possess 
of this church until the year 1730, when it was 
rebuilt upon the old foundations. From the old 
and weathered appearance of portions of the walls, 
it has evidently been built from the materials of 
the older church. 

It was renovated in 1892, and, during the 
excavations in the interior of the old building, the 
workmen came upon large quantities of bones. 
There was also unearthed a large sepulchral stone 
with a cross sculptured upon it, which, in all 
probability, is very old. It is now placed in the 
vestibule of the church. On a projecting stone in 
the exterior back wall there is an old sundial, 
which bears no date, and which is probably a relic 
of the 1730 construction, or it may be, earlier. 

* Mr. Ferguson Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 



172 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Near it is a portion of the chain and a small 
fragment of the collar which formed the jougs. 
This relic is now rarely to be met with in old 
churches. 

It is a pretty little church inside, with apse and 
chancel, and beautifully stained-glass windows. 
Inserted in the south wall is a sculptured stone 
bearing the St. Clair arms, with the letters I. S. 
above. 

There is nothing very remarkable in the church 
yard, the inscriptions on the older stones being so 
much defaced. 

This inscription appears on a small stone : 

" Here lyse James Robertson who dyed Jan wary the 9 1734 
aped 25 years. " 

On another small stone : 

"Hear lies the body of James Trotter and Elisabeth Litter 
his wife." 

The following, in the most rudely printed and 
somewhat obscure characters, appears on a very 
small, peculiarly shaped stone : 

" Heir leys James Shir L men (?) to Jeneat Hwem who 
dcprted on Jan wary 27 day 1707." 

There are two communion cups inscribed : 
" Given by S r Robert Sinclair of Lamformacus to 
kirk thereof 1674." 

In the centre of the village, about 50 yards from 
the church, is a " holy well, dedicated to Our 
Lady, with date 1581. On the stone work above 
the spring is an elaborate monogram containing 



LONGFORMACUS. 173 

the letters D. W. B. (David Wardlaw Brown, 
proprietor of Longformacus). 

The following is a list of the ministers who have 
been in Longformacus since 1594 : 

John Douglas, M. A. 1594 to 1607. 
George Rowlle, M. A. 1607 to 1652. 
Thomas Wolfe, M. A. 1668 to 1671. 
Alexander Douglas, M. A. 1672 to 1677. 
John Broun, M. A. 1678 to 1684. 
Robert Smyth, M. A. 1684 to 1714. 
Daniel Sinclair, M. A. 1715 to 1734. 
Robert Monteith, M. A.* 1735 to 1776. 
Selby Ord 1777 to 1814. 
George Bell -1815 to 1830. 
Henry Riddell 1830 to 1843. 
Walter Weir 1844 to 1871. 
George Cook, M.A., B.D. 1871 to 1891. 
James Johnstone Drummond, M.A., B.D. (present 
incumbent) 1891. 

The Free Church stands in the centre of the 
village of Longformacus. It was erected in 1847, 
and is in the form of a cross. The present minister 
is George Taylor, M.A., settled in 1870. 

ELLEM, as already stated, was a separate parish 
up till 1712. Concerning its history we know 
almost nothing. The church was dedicated by 
Bishop Bernham in 1243. Thomas Brown, the 
parson of Ellem, swore fealty to Edward III. after 

Monteith was a volunteer, and his bravery in that capacity 
has been thus sarcastically described in the witty ballad of 
Tranent Muir": 

" Monteith the great, when hersell shit, 
Un wares did ding him o er man, 
Yet wadne stand to bear a hand, 
But aff fou fast did scour, man." 

Scott s Fasti Eccles icv Scotkance. 



174 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

the battle of Halidon Hill (1333), and in return 
received protection for his person and his parson 
age.* 

The remains of the old church are situated on an 
elevation on the north bank of the Whitadder, 
close to Ellemford, about three miles above Abbey 
St. Bathans. The foundations are easily traced, 
and a small portion of the south wall is still 
standing. 

The churchyard has evidently been very small. 
Only two or three stones are lying about in 
confusion. 

On a large horizontal stone : 

" Here lyeth James Scovgal in Eel . . . who died the 5 
of Nov. 1627 of his age the 75 years. 

"Me mcnto mori." 

On a similar stone : 

" Heir lyeth James Scovgal who died in 25 day 1691." 

The following is a list of the ministers of Ellem 
from 1567 till its incorporation with Longformacus: 

Robert Flint, Reader 1567 to 1585. 
Matthew Liddell 1585 to 1591. 
Robert Levingstoun 1593 to 1595. 
James Gaittis 1595 to 1596. 
George Reid path, M. A. 1596 to 1627. 
Robert Home, M. A. 1635 to 1645. 
Patrick Home 1649 to 1650. 
William Home 1652 to 1653. 
Zacharias Wilkie, M.A. 1654 to 1683. 
John Brown, M. A. 1684 to 1713. 



Chalmers Caledonia. 



MERTOTJN. 175 



flDertoun. 

THE church of Mertoun existed about the middle 
of the twelfth century. It was given by Hugh de 
Morville to Dryburgh. In 1241 the church was 
consecrated by Bishop de Bernham. Dene David 
Dewar was vicar of Mertoun in 1483. Having laid 
claim to the abbey of Dryburgh, a lawsuit ensued 
as to the validity of his claim. It came before the 
Lords, and they, in 1488-9, found that Dewar, 
being a spiritual person, and the abbacy litigious, 
the abbot ought to summon him before the spiritual 
"judge."* 

The present church of Mertoun dates back to 
1658. Since that time it has undergone many 
repairs. An old stone which forms the outer step 
at the east entrance is inscribed : 
"IVLIE 1658." 

On a modern stone, above this door, is the 
same inscription ; while another stone above tin- 
west door bears the following : 

"Repd 1820." 

The building is long and narrow, and exceed 
ingly plain. 

The bell bears date 1762. 

In the front wall still hangs the old chain com 
plete, and part of the collar of the jougs. 

* Parish Records. 



176 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The east gable is completely covered with ivy, 
which, with the neat belfry at the opposite end, 
and the whole snugly embowered within the leafy 
shade, imparts to the little church a decidedly 
picturesque appearance. 

In the interior there are five old-fashioned square 
pews belonging to the heritors : one worthy of 
special notice is that belonging to the Right Hon. 
Lord Polwarth, which is enclosed with wood to the 
height of o feet, and has in it an old-fashioned 
fire-place. 

The site of the original church of Mertoun is 
about a mile distant in the centre of the church 
yard, still the parish burial-ground. The east wall 
of this church still stands to a height of about 8 feet, 
and portions of the north and south walls still 
remain. The building has been in the Norman 
style, although all trace of its architectural features 
have disappeared. 

An old sepulchral slab, bearing an ornamental 
cross carved in relief upon its upper surface, stands 
near the south wall. It bears the marks of con 
siderable antiquity, but no date or inscription of 
any kind appears on it. 

The churchyard contains a considerable number 
of very interesting stones. 

On a very plain stone much defaced : 
"James Mill 1693." 

On a small stone dated 1771 : 

" A budding rose swept doun 
By water overfloun 
Like a plant of renoun 
A sweet flour tho wnrloun (?)" 



MERTOUN. 177 

On a small, very plain stone : 

" A L March 17 I L 1691." 

On a stone to the memory of John Lockie are 
these lines : 

" Patient was he in his distress 

Unto his parents dear 
To serve in glory was his hope 
And learning was his care." 

On a small stone : 

" Hear . Ijs . Alexander Lockie . who . died . the . 15 . day . 
of . Agos . 16 . 95 . His age 54." 

On another small stone : 

" Here Lays George Halliburton tailer in Ne . . . who 
died feb 15 1713 aged . . years." 

On a tall, narrow, and very peculiarly shaped 
stone : 

" Heir lyis the Body of ane Honest man John Haitley who 
died the 25 day of January 1698 His eag being 58 years." 

On a very small stone : 

" Here lyes Bessey Gregg spoues to John Beety who died the 
10 of March 1699 & of age 40." 

DRYBURGH ABBEY. In this parish are the ruins 
of that ancient and far-famed monastic establish 
ment. Dryburgh is the queen of Scottish abbeys, 
enjoying the calm solitude of undisturbed repose 
away from the busy haunts of men. Here it stands 
embosomed amid the shadow and gloom of wood 
on the left bank of the Tweed, which, by a majestic 
sweep, surrounds it on three sides. It would seem 

M 



178 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

as if nature here had usurped the domain of art, 
for not only are the ruins largely overgrown with 
ivy, but from heaps of masonry the spruce and the 
holly may be seen flourishing, and even from the 
higher portions of the building trees have sprung 
up and attained considerable growth. 

The abbey was founded in 1150 by Hugo de 
Morville.* As early as the sixth century, however, 
a monastery existed on the spot. St. Modan, who 
was one of the first Christian missionaries in Britain, 
was abbot of Dryburgh about the year 552. Its 
name also points to the probability that in early 
times a Druidical establishment existed on the site 
of the present ruin. Though now a mass of 
crumbling walls and tottering arches, yet in its very 
wreck and decay the grey pile towers up in solemn 
grandeur as a venerable remnant of a long-past 
and almost forgotten age. 

Entering at the north-east corner, we have the 
high altar on the left, towards which the monks and 
abbots reverently knelt and bowed in silence. From 
the high altar to the west door is a distance of 
about 230 feet this includes the choir and nave. 
Passing through the west door, and proceeding 
southward, the dungeons three in number are 
reached. They are damp and dingy, as such places 
usually are.f Their size is about 30 feet long, by 

* Authorities differ as to the real founder of Dryburgh ; some, 
even good authorities, maintain that it was due to David I., 
but the balance of evidence seems to go in favour of Hugo de 
Morville." 

t It was in one of these that, about 150 years ago, an unfor 
tunate female wanderer took up her abode. It is said that 



MERTOUN. 179 

12 feet broad, and 9 feet high. One of these com 
municates with the cloisters at the north-west 
corner. This is a courtyard of considerable extent, 
and adorned on all sides with objects of elegantly- 
carved mason work. It measures about 100 feet 
square, and is tastefully laid out in the form of a 
lawn. South of this, and entered from the south 
west corner of the cloisters, are the cellars, a cluster 
of commodious chambers, including the old wine 
and almonry cellars, and above these is the refec 
tory, or great dining-room of the monks, the walls 
on the west and south of which are now almost 
completely gone. This apartment measured 100 
feet long, by 30 feet broad, and 60 feet high. Pro 
ceeding eastward, we enter the library, an.d, north 
of this, the abbot s parlour, adjoining which is 
the chapter-house, an elegant and richly-adorned 
chamber measuring 47 feet long, 23 feet broad, and 
20 feet high, enhanced at the east end by five Early 
English Gothic windows, and at the west end by 
a large circular-headed centre window, with a small 
one on each side. The hall is ornamented with a 
series of intersected arches. North of the chapter 
house is the family vault of the Biber Erskines, 



during the day she never left her dismal dwelling, but when 
night came she issued forth and sought the hospitality of the 
neighbouring residents, returning, hermit-like, to her miserable 
abode precisely at twelve o clock. By the more intelligent class 
she was looked upon with compassion, while she was regarded 
with some degree of terror by the vulgar. It is believed that she 
adopted this strange mode of life as the result of having taken 
a vow, that, during the absence of her lover, she would never 
look upon the sun. He, alas ! never returned, having fallen in 
the wars of the 45 rebellion." 



180 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

adjoining which is St. Modan s chapel, and, 
underneath, the family vaults of the Erskines of 
Dryburgh and the Earls of Buchan. To the north 
west of the high altar is that part of the north 
transept, St. Mary s aisle, in which are the three 
vaults burial-places of the Haigs of Bemersyde, 
the Haliburtons of Mertoun, and the Erskines of 
Sheilfield. Sir Walter Scott was buried here on 
26th September, 1832. The spot is therefore 
hallowed and honoured by the dust of " the mighty 
minstrel." In life he loved to linger amid the calm 
solitude and tender beauties of the place, and here 
also, now that his tongue and pen are still, his ashes 
rest in peace and undisturbed repose far from the 
" madding crowd " : 

" So there, in solemn solitude, 

In that sequestered spot, 
Lies mingling with its kindred clay 

The dust of Walter Scott ! 
Ah ! where is now the flashing eye 

That kindled up at Flodden Field, 
That saw, in fancy, onsets fierce, 

And clashing spear and shield ? 

" The flashing eye is dimmed for aye ; 

The stalwart limb is stiff and cold ; 
No longer pours his trumpet-note 

To wake the jousts of old. 
The generous heart, the open hand, 

The ruddy cheek, the silver hair 
Are mouldering in the silent dust 

All, all is lonely there !" 

What still remains of this vast structure is suf 
ficient to give a fairly accurate conception of the 
architecture and general design ; and these leave 
nothing to be desired in the way of beauty and 



MERTOUN. 181 

perfection of style and workmanship. It is, indeed, 
a study of the highest interest alike to the architect 
and the archaeologist, having been founded at the 
time of the transition from the round-headed 
Norman arch to the Early English or pointed arch. 
That much of the original work still remains is 
evident from the numerous details of a transitional 
character to be met with throughout the ruins. 
The interior of the chapter-house is one of the most 
notable examples; for here we have the interlacing 
Norman arches, the intersection of which is supposed 
by some authorities to have given rise to the pointed 
arch of later times. Of the further development of 
the Early English style, a good example is seen in 
the fine circular window, locally known as St. 
Catherine s Wheel. The font, which now stands 
in the chapter-house, is evidently older than any 
part of the building, and may, without much hesi 
tation, be ascribed to either the tenth or eleventh 
century. In the various arches are represented no 
fewer than four different styles viz., the Roman 
arch with square sides, the deep-splayed Saxon, the 
pillared and intersected Norman, and the Early 
English Gothic pointed arch. 

The western doorway is a masterly and unique 
piece of work, consisting of a semi-circular arch 
composed of richly-moulded ribs of shafts springing 
from the ground and running round the arch 
without a break, with rosettes placed at regular 
intervals in the deep hollows, the effect of which 
is peculiar, and yet highly pleasing. This doorway, 
however, requires to be seen before it can be fully 
understood and appreciated. 



182 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Of the once magnificent fabric little now remains 
but the mouldering fragments of a noble specimen 
of ancient art. But the story of its sadly checkered 
career comes down to us fresh and imperishable, 
full of inspiration, from the example of the old 
monks whose lives work lay within its sacred walls. 

Its surroundings lend an added charm to the 
place. Close by is 

" Tweed s fair river, broad and deep." 

Encircling it are the majestic trees, with their long 
deep shadows adding darkness to solitude, the soft 
rich turf decked with sweetly-scented wild flowers 
in great profusion a fairy scene worthy indeed of 
the poet s rapturous words : 

" Hail, Dryburgh ! to thy sylvan shades all hail ! 
As to a shrine, from places far away, 
With awe-struck spirit, to thy classic vale 
Shall pilgrims come to muse, perchance to pray ; 
More hallowed now than in thy elder day, 
For sacred is the earth wherein is laid 
The poet s dust ; and still his mind, his lay, 
And his renown shall flourish undecayed, 
Like his loved country s fame, that is not doomed to fade." 

At different periods the abbey suffered severely 
at the hands of the English. In 1322, Edward II., 
returning south, pillaged and burned it ; and again, 
in 1385, Richard II. subjected the sacred edifice to 
the flames. In 1545, also, a similar fate befel it, 
being plundered and burned by an English force 
under the Earl of Hertford. Thus the present 
building is but the surviving elements, the mere 
wreck, indeed, of a once splendid monastic edifice, 
in which the master hand is discernible. It has 



MERTOUN. 183 

passed through many hands, and is now the pro 
perty of the Biber Erskines. 

The churches held by Dryburgh Abbey were 
Mertoun, Channelkirk (with its chapels Gleugelt 
and Carfrae), Lauder (with its chapels St. John at 
Kedslie and St. Leonards).* 

A stone bearing the following inscription is built 
into the chancel wall : 

"Erected to the memory of Hugo cle Morville Lord of 
Lavtherdale and Lord High Chancellor of Scotland who founded 
and bvlt this abbey vnder King David I. he died in 1162." 

Near by is another stone with the following : 

" Here lyes Adrian Haig who died being the time of my 
Lwdek Powstatic this is the trwth : His espovseric : Margarat 
Hwtly sister of the Hwrdlaw 1630. 

" Dauid Haig died Jwly 4 1752 : aged 85 also his spows Agnns 
Sciruen who died : Octbr 20 1754 Aged 84 years. 

" Also Here lies Andrew Haig, who died the 29th January 
1649." 

Another of the same family is thus commemo 
rated : 

" Here lies Andrew Haig ... in Dryburgh who died the 
1st of December, aged 60 years also Jane M Mellan, his wife, 
who died the 4th December, aged 70 years ; both in the year of 
our Lord 1671. 

" As Jonathan and Israel s king 

In love did still abide, 
So pleasant were this happy pair, 
Their death did not divide." 



* In an enclosure, still called the Chapel Field, about a mile 
west of the ruins of Dryburgh, were found in 1788 the remains 
of a place of worship, concerning which there is no record more 
than the tradition of the name of the field. Annals and Antiqui 
ties of Dryburgh, -1828. 



184 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The following lines were written for the above, 
but were not allowed to be put on the stone : 

" cruel death, for ever killing, 
Has killed poor Haig and Jean M Mellan ; 
But still in hopes that they shall meet, 
They laid poor Jean at Andrew s feet." 

These stones are situated near the ultima domus 
of the Haigs of Bemersyde. 

On the tomb of Sir Walter Scott are these simple 
words : 

" Sir Walter Scott, Baronet. Died September 21, A.D. 1832." 

On a large stone built into the wall at the foot of 
the bell stairs a large cross is engraved in the 
centre, and these words round the margin : 

" Hie Jacit Honorabilis vir Adam Robson de Gleddiswood, qui 
obiit vii Octobris, Anno Domine 1555. " 

The oldest stone in the abbey with legible 
inscription has these words : 

" M. Alexander Simpson, secclesae apud Mertonis, obiit 17 
Julii 1639. 

" Whose life and happy death 
This sacred stone records, 
By Christ s blessing and passions, 
Still resting in the Lord. 

"MAS 

" His cautious soul s his triumph, 

In Christ is his joy and calling, 
In the heavens his soul liveth, 

His corps till Christ return remaining." 

In the churchyard adjoining the abbey there are 
many old stones, but the inscriptions are much 
worn, and some of them quite illegible. 



MERTOUN. 185 

On a very small, plain stone : 

" Heir lyes Jams Waker sone to the desisd John Waker who 
died the 13 of October 1713 and his age . . ." 

On a small, curiously-shaped stone : 

" Her lyes Androv Haig who dayed the 20 day Sepm 1679." 

On a small, thin stone : 

" Heir lyes Jams Heag son to the descised Willeam Heag . 
ys . J . H. was porchioner in Kedslie . A . G . . . who 
died the 8 of Janw MDCCXIV and of his . . ." 

On the other side of this stone are rudely sculptured 
an uncouth figure, hour-glass, cross bones, and skull. 
On a stone erected to the memory of a son of old 
Jamie Barrie/ who was custodian of the Wallace 
monument near by, is the following inscription 
written by himself: 

" Beneath this stone lies James Barrie, 

Whose Bible lov d to read, 
But now in silent tomb does lie, 
No farther can proceed." 

The termination of the above was considered too 
abrupt, and the following was added : 

" Until last trumpet s awful sound 
The rending earth shall shake, 
And opening graves shall yield their dust, 
And death to life awake. 
"Aged 25." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Mertouri since 1576 : 

Robert Ker 1576 to 1579. 
Robert Rind 1580 to 1581 

James Menzies 1585 to . 

James Smythe, M. A. 1586 to 1592. 



186 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

John Hepburne, M. A. 1593 to 1596. 
Alexander Symsone, M. A. 1597 to 1632.* 
James Urquhart, M.A. 1632 to 1635. 

Thomas Courtney, M. A. 1640 to . 

James Kirkton, M.A. 1657 to 1662. 

Thomas Courtney, M.A. (reinstated) 1663 to . 

James Dunbar, M. A. 1667 to 1675. 

Andrew Meldrum, M.A. 1675 to 1690. 

James Kirkton, M.A. (reinstated) 1690 (a few months). 

John Wallace, M. A. 1692 to 1693. 

Robert Liver, M.A. 1697 to 1717. 

James Innes, M. A. 1718 to 1767. 

John Martin 1768 to 1790. 

James Duncan 1790 to 1845. 

John Grieve 1845 to 1860. 

William M Lean 1860 to 1864. 

Alexander M Laren 1864 to 1891. 

Andrew Thomson Donald (present incumbent) 1892. 



* Symsone, when preaching in Edinburgh, 22d July, 1621, 
" spared neither king, bishope, nor minister, and found fault 
with the watchmen of both countries for not admonishing the 
king to forfeare his oathes, and omitting to put him in mind of 
the breache of Covenant," for which he was apprehended the 
following day, and confined to Dumbarton, and ordained to 
live at his own expense. He was soon again released, and 
confined to his own parish. " He knew and cared little about 
earthly things, but was unwearied in prayer, and constantly 
occupied with the Bible. He died 17th June, 1639." Scott s 
Fasti Eccleslce Scoticance. 



MORDINGTON. 187 



flborbfngton. 

MENTION is made of the church of Mordington in 
the year 1275. John de Paxton, who was then 
parson of the church, was one of the few Scottish 
ecclesiastics who, at the ecclesiastic council held at 
Perth in 1275, by order of Pope Gregory X., 
refused to contribute the tithe of his benefice 
towards expelling the Saracens from the Holy 
Laud. His successor, Bernard de Lynton, swore 
fealty to Edward I. on 24th August, 1296. 

The ancient church of Mordingtou stood in a 
field called the Kirk Park in front of the present 
mansion house of Mordington. It is said that 
about the middle of last century it was intentionally 
set fire to, and completely wrecked. Of that church 
there are now no remains, but in the centre of the 
churchyard, near where the old church presumably 
stood, there is a gloomy old burial vault, which is 
still very entire. On one side of the doorway 
facing eastward is the date 1662, with the initial 
letters W. M. above a heart transfixed with a 
dagger. The early proprietors of Mordington were 
members of the Douglas family, which sufficiently 
explains the above, the armorial bearings referred 
to being, in part, those used by that powerful 
family. The letters W. M. probably stand for 
William Lord Mordington. In the interior there is 
nothing to relieve the dull monotony of bare walls 



188 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

and a rough, uneven, earthen floor except one 
curious stone, which is built into the western gable. 
On this stone or tablet is represented a figure of 
our Saviour extended upon the cross, with an 
inscription in rude characters which resemble 
Hebrew, but which has puzzled the most learned 
antiquaries to decipher. At its base stand two 
grotesque and rudely-executed figures, whose 
heads come immediately below the horizontal cross 
beam. These figures are attired in a monkish 
habit. The head of one is surmounted with the 
fleur de Us, and that of the other with the thistle. 

The old churchyard, which is now, and has been 
for many years, in disuse, is in the form of an oval 
plantation, surrounded with a stone wall which 
rises about four feet above the general level of the 
ground outside, and quite level with the inner 
surface of the burial ground. There are only 
about a dozen stones to be seen, with fragments of 
others lying about the surface. A considerable 
number of other stones, which seem to be almost 
entire, are level with the ground, and some almost 
buried out of sight. The whole place, indeed, is in 
a most dilapidated condition. 

A very small stone is thus inscribed : 

" Heir lyes William Ross 1683." 

The following appears on a very small, plain 
stone : 

"Here lays the body of George Spevin who died March 
22 day 1745 his age 60 years. Also here lays the body of Allison 
Broun wife to Georg Spevin who died October 28 day 1735 her 
age 48 years." 



MORDINGTON. 189 

A plain stone is inscribed on one side thus : 

" Here Lyes The Body of Peter Brodiy who Died lune 25 
1759 aged 47 years." 

On the other side, inscribed within a neat panel, 
are these words : 

" Here Lyeth The Body of William Brody son to Peter Brody 
who Died suptember ye 22 day 1752 his age 24 years." 

A small and exceedingly plain stone, moss- 
covered and severely weathered, bears these 
words : 

" Heir lyes the body of James Cowen who departed this life 
agvst 27 1733 his age 77 years. And Elizabeth Fish his wife 
who died in the 8 day of Swptember Anno 1719 aged 56 years." 

A church, which was the successor of the original 
one already referred to, and the predecessor of the 
present church yet to be noticed, stood in the 
centre of the present burial ground of Mordington 
parish, close to the Duns road, four miles from 
Berwick. This building was used as the parish 
church up till the time that the present church was 
erected. There are no traces whatever of this 
building now, but it is understood to have been a 
very plain and uninteresting fabric, erected some 
time during the 17th century. 

The churchyard presently in use contains nothing 
remarkable in the way of old inscriptions, and 
nothing more remote than the middle of the 18th 
century. 

On a large stone, erected to the memory of 
Andrew and William KIT, are these words: 



190 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

" Though in the grave my body ly 

And worms do it consume 
Till waiting for the glorious day 

When Christ shall call me home. 
Though for a time my dust be loath 

Most beautiful ill be 
My mortal body shall be cloth d 

With immortality." 

The following words appear on a medium-sized 
stone : 

" Heare Lyeth the Body of Jas Hogg . who Died the th26 
of Janry 1797 aged 67 years." 

A large horizontal stone, with date 1775, has the 
following lines : 

" He was healthful 

And his conscience clear 
His heart was honest 

To his friends sincere 
Death nere did awe him 

For he wished to die 
In silent Peace 

Here let his ashes lie." 

The present little church of Mordington is quite 
modern, having been erected about 25 years ago. 
It occupies a delightful situation, midway between 
the old churchyard and the one presently in use, 
about a quarter of a mile from each. Standing on 
a high ridge, it commands an extensive view of a 
far-reaching and beautiful landscape. It is in the 
Gothic style, and cruciform in shape. The interior 
is neat, well lighted, lofty, and exceedingly com 
fortable. 

LAMBERTOX, which was formerly a parish, is now 
united to Mordington. Its church was a chapelry 
belonging to the priory of Coldingham, to which 



MORDINGTON. 191 

its advowson was attached. After the Reformation 
Larnberton parish was annexed to the adjoining 
parish of Ayton to enlarge the stipend ; and in 1650 
it was disjoined from Ayton and annexed to the 
still smaller parish of Mordington. The old church 
of Larnberton stood on an eminence three miles 
northward from Berwick near the Edinburgh road. 
It was the scene of several important events. The 
marriage treaty of Princess Margaret with James 
IV. stipulated that she should be delivered to the 
King s commissioners at Larnberton church, without 
any expense to the bridegroom. The story of her 
journey hence from Berwick is thus quaintly 
told : " On the XXX and XXXI days of July 1502, 
the queen tarried at Barrwyk, where she had great 
chere of the said cappitayne of Barrwyk. That 
same day was, by the cappitayne, to the pleaseur 
of the said quene, gyffen corses of chasee, within 
the said town, with other sports of bayrs and of 
dogs togeder. The first day of August, the quene 
departed from Barwick for to go to Larnberton 
kerke in verrey fair company, and well appoynted. 
Before the said quene war, by order, Johannes and 
hys company [of players] and Henry Glescebery 
and his company, the trumpets, officrs of arms, and 
sergeants of Masse ; so that, at the departing out 
of the said Barrwyk, and at her Bedward, at 
Larnberton kerke, it was a joy for to see and 
here."* 

Queen Margaret lost her husband at the fatal 
battle of Flodden in 1513, and in 1517, under sadly 



Leland s Collectanea, II. 



192 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

altered circumstances, she returned to Lamberton 
kirk a widowed queen. The ruins of this church 
stand within its burying ground, close to the farm 
steading of the same name. It has consisted of a 
nave, 30 feet by 17 feet, and a narrower chancel, 
28 feet by 14 feet internally, each of which is now 
converted into a burial-aisle. The walls are about 
six feet high, and the greater part of these is 
modern, every detail of ancient date having 
disappeared.* 

The churchyard, which is now in disuse, is in a 
sadly dilapidated condition, many of the tombstones 
lying flat on the ground and partially overgrown 
with grass. The wall which surrounds it is partly 
broken down, and affords but meagre protection to 
the sacred place. 

On a medium-sized stone, dated 1772, are these 
words : 

" Vain world, farewell, enough I ve had of thee, 
For now I m careless what thou say st of me : 
Thy smiles I court not nor thy frowns do fear, 
My cares are past, my bones lie quiet here, 
My crimes conspicuous, vain man, avoid ! 
Thine own heart search and then thou lt be employed." 

* Mr Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Chib, 1890. 
Several authorities state that the marriage ceremony of James 
IV. and Margaret was performed in Lamberton church, and a 
tradition has long prevailed in this part of the country that on 
this account the King of Scotland granted to the clergyman of 
this parish and his successors, in all time coming, the liberty of 
marrying people without proclamation of banns. James IV. was 
not married here, and the tradition referred to has no historical 
foundation. Lamberton Toll, near by, was long notorious for its 
irregular marriages, and indeed several have taken place within 
the last few years. This may have had something to do with 
the above tradition. 



MORDINGTON. 193 

The following appears on a very small stone : 

" Here Lyeth the corps of David Windrham, sons of George 
Windrham who departed this life March 26, 1767." 

A medium-sized, plain stone, dated 1772, is thus 
inscribed : 

" Here lyes John Runciman 
Kept within 
A prison close for 
Adam s sin. But rests in 
Glorious hope that he 
Shal by the second 
Adam be set free." 

The following is a list of the ministers who have 
been in Mordington since 1573 : 

Robert Douglas 1573 to 1581. 

John Spottiswood 1581 to . 

Thomas Ramsay, M. A. 1648 to 1682. 

George Barclay 1682 to 1689. 

Thomas Ramsay, M.A. (reinstated) 1689 to 1695. 

Alexander Lauder, M.A. 1695 to 1719. 

John Law 1721 to 1735. 

Richard Bell, M. A. 1736 to 1773. 

James Smith 1773 to 1791. 

George Drummond 1792 to 1800. 

William Davidson 1801 to 1804. 

George Chalmers 1805 to 1831. 

George Fulton Knight, M.A.* 1832 to 1843. 

Charles Blair 1843 to 1870. 

David Miller, B.D., LL.B. 1871 to 1884. 

Hugh Fleming (present incumbent) 1885. 

There is a Free Church in this parish, built in 
1843. The present minister is Peter Geddes 
Hendiy, M.A., settled in 1894. 

* Knight left the Established Church at the Disruption. 

N 



194 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



mentborru 

THE church of Naithansthirn. now Nenthorn, 
existed in the latter part of the 12th century. 
Nenthorn and Newton, or Little Newton, were at 
this time included in the district now embraced in 
the present parish. Both were originally chapels 
dependent on the church of Ednam as the mother 
church, which was a dependency of Coldingham till 
1316, when, with its subordinate chapels, it came 
into the possession of the monks of Kelso, with 
whom it remained till the Reformation.* In the 
latter part of the 12th century Nenthorn and Newton 
were formed into a separate parish, and the chapel 
of the former became the parish church. 

The foundations of the ancient church of Nen 
thorn are dimly traceable in the centre of the 
churchyard. A few fragments of sculptured stones, 
all that have been rescued from the old building, 
are gathered together in a small heap. 

In the churchyard, which occupies a delightfully 
secluded position on the north bank of the river 
Eden, are a number of old and interesting stones. 

On a medium-sized stone, the upper part of which 

* Chalmers 5 Caledonia. 



NENTHORN. 195 

is broken away so that the first line of the inscrip 
tion is awanting, appears the following : * 

" My saul in Hevin 

My bones in Hopheir 
Z2 lyes to rest to reign 

in thair Redemer 
"> ryse for satan sin 
& the grave death 
<_ hel and al my savi 
^ our Chryst upon the ^ 
^ croce maid thral. 
MB" 2 



ui p9A*p j>b diaus 

The following inscription is from a flat tombstone 
discovered by Mr. C. B. Balfour of Newton Don, who 
had it cleaned from its centuries overgrowth of moss 
and weeds, and copied the words. The Alexander 
Stevisone mentioned is understood to be an an 
cestor of Mr. J. H. Rutherfurd, publisher, Kelso. 



HEIR LYIS OF 
GVD MEMOR 
IE ANE VERIE 
HONEST 
MAN OALIT 
ALEXANDER 
STEVISONE 
QVHO DE 
PARTED YE 
8 DAY OF 
IANUAR YE 
ZEIR OF GO D 

1606 

HE YAT BE 
LYVEIS IN 
ME SAL 
HAVE EV 
ERL AST 
ING LIFE." 



When the author came upon this stone it stood inverted, 



196 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Another reads : 

" Heir lyes an honest man James Persone who decaesed May 
21 Age 70 1681. 

"Heir lyes Margaret daughter to John Pearsone present 
tenent in Hardis mile place who died the 8 of October 1688 age 
17." 

On a very small, plain stone : 
"Heir lyes Jenet Stevenson spous to Wiliam Thinn who 
deceased Novr 22 1695 age 77." 

On a very small, sculptured stone : 

" Heir . lyes . William . Watson . Robert . Watson . Jeanet . 
Watson . children . to . Robert . Watson . died . in . April . 
1684." 

And on the other side of this stone : 

" Heir . lyes . Elspth . Brovn . died . in Agvst . 1688 . and . 
Mark . ker . Spovs . to . Robrt . Watson . N . Maxwhilhewgh . 
dyster . who . died . Agwst . 15 . day . 1702 . year . hir . age . 
50." 

On a small stone with some grotesquely sculp 
tured figures on it : 

" Death is not loss but rather gain 
If we by dying life a tine." 

A similar stone bears : 

" Heir lyes Thomas Whit merchant who died Agust 2 1687 
and of his age 85 years." 

so that the upper part of the inscription was buried more than 
a foot below the surface of the ground. For the correct render 
ing of this and other inscriptions which follow, he is indebted 
to Mr. Balfour, who, referring to the letters " M B," observes : 
"The initials MB perhaps show that Mary or Margaret 
Brounfield was the name. Sneip is a cottage on Mellerstain 
estate, close to Mellowlees." 



NENTHORN. 197 

The present church is small and quite modern, 
having been erected in 1802. It is situated about 
a quarter of a mile from the site of the old church 
and burial-ground. 

There are two communion cups, engraved 
" NENTHORN PARISH 1780." 

Of the CHAPEL of NEWTON there is not a vestige 
now remaining; even its exact site is a matter of 
uncertainty. Referring to it, Mr. Balfour says : 
" This chapel has a long history. The chapels of 
Little Newton, Nathansthyrne, and Stitchell were 
originally chapels of the mother church of Ednam. 
In 1158-63 they belonged to Coldiugham Priory, a 
dependency of Durham. In 1204 the monks con 
ceded to William, Bishop of St. Andrews, both 
chapels of Newton and Nathanshorn. David of 
Beruham, Bishop of St. Andrews (1238-52), is said 
to have consecrated the church of Nenthorn, which 
probably then became the parish church, and the 
chapel of Little Newton the dependent chapel, 
instead of both being chapels of Ednam. In 1316 
William of Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, gave 
the church of Nenthorn and the chapel of Little 
Newton to the Abbey of Kelso, in exchange for 
Cranston and Preston in Mid-Lothian. In 1567 the 
kirklarids of Neuthorne are entered as producing 
a rental of forty shillings, and the lands of Lytill 
Nutowne thirty shillings. 

"The site of the chapel of Little Newton is 
probably the old burial-place of the Don family, 
outside the Mid-Lodge of Newton Don. The only 
other possible site is in the Lawn Park, where the 



198 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

site of the village is said to have been. Here, 
when laying drains some years ago, the workmen 
came on stone coffins, which were left in situ"* 

The walls of the burial vault referred to above, 
which seems to be comparatively modern, are still 
standing. The place is not now used as the family 
burying vault. Lying just outside the walls is a 
fragment of an old tombstone, with a part of the 
inscription, thus : 

"and Margt. Novr 14 1729 years." 

Near it is a fragment of another apparently much 
older stone, with grotesque figure in relief sculp 
tured upon it, but without any inscription. 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Nenthorn since 1597: 

John Spottiswood 1597 to 1611. 

Andrew Kinneir, M. A. 1611 to . 

James Fletcher, M.A. 1660 to 1662. 

James Robesone 1664 to . 

James Fletcher, M.A. (reinstated) 1669 to . 

Robert Calder 1689 to 1689 (a few months). 

William Brown, M.A. 1692 to 1692 (a few months). 

James Ker, M. A. 1696 to 1754. 

Abraham Ker 1754 to 1793. 

Gavin Wallace 1793 to 1834. 

John Gilford (assistant and successor) 1832 to 1854. 

Manners H. Graham 1855 to 1866. 

John Barclay 1866 to 1868. 

Henry G. Graham -1868 to 1884. 

David Anderson (present incumbent) 1885. 



* Paper by C. B. Balfour, Esq., Newton Don. Hist. Ber. 
Nat. Club. 



NENTHORN. 199 

There is a Free Church hi this parish, built in 
1843. It is in the Gothic style; small, but very 
comfortable. The present minister is Donald 
Iverach, M.A., settled in 1885. 



200 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



o I w a r t fx 



So far as the mere fabric is concerned, there are 
few churches in Berwickshire more interesting than 
that of Polwarth. Its position on an elevation, 
embowered in wood and clothed in a lovely green 
mantle of ivy, is exceedingly picturesque. It is 
situated almost in the very heart of Berwickshire, 
midway between Duns and Greerilaw. 

The following inscription appears on a sandstone 
slab inserted in the wall above the south door : 

" Templum hoc del cultui in ecclesia de Poluarth 

A fundi dominis ejusdem prius designationis 
Dein cognorninis sedificatum et dicatum ante annum 
Solutis 900 rectoriaque beneficio dotatum 

sed temporis cursu labefactum 

A dno Johanne de * sancto claro de Herdmanston 
Genero dni patricij de Poluarth de eodem 

circa annum 1378 reparatum 
Tandem vero vetustate ad ruinam vergens 

Sumtibus utriusque prosaplse heredis 
Dni patricij Hume comitis de Marchmont etc 

summi scotise cancellarii 

Et dnre Grisellise Kar comitissae suee sposas 
Sepulchri sacello arcuate recens constructum 
Et * campanarum obelisco adauctum fuit 
Anno domini 1703."* 



* Translation : "This temple for the worship of God in the 
church of Polwarth by the lords of the soil of the same 
designation originally, afterwards of the same name, built and 
consecrated before the year of grace 900, and endowed with the 



POLWARTH. 201 

On 7th April, 1242, the church was dedicated 
(re-dedicated, we should say, according to the 
theory of its antiquity as stated in the inscription) 
by Bishop David de Bernham. In 1296 Adam 
Lamb, the " parson of the church of Paulesworth," 
swore fealty to Edward I., and, in consequence, 
had his forfeited property restored. He continued 
in office till 1299, when Edward presented William 
de Sandyutone, clerk, to the living. In 1378 the 
church not, we may presume, a very durable or 
imposing edifice had fallen into a ruinous state, 
and was then repaired by Lord John Sinclair of 
Herdmanstou. 



benefice of a rector, but in course of time fallen into ruin, was 
repaired by Lord John Sinclair of Herdmanston, the son-in-law 
of Lord Patrick Hume, Earl of Marchmont, &c., High Chancellor 
of Scotland, and of Lady Grissell Kar, his wife and countess, it 
was fresh built with the shrine in the form of a vault, and 
augmented by the addition of a bell-tower. Anno Domini 1703." 

From this it would appear that Polwarth can boast of a 
higher antiquity than any others (save the priory churches) in 
Berwickshire. It is unfortunate, however, that the evidence is 
barely sufficient to warrant our acceptance of so remote an 
antiquity as that which the foregoing inscription ascribes to it. 
On this point Mr Ferguson remarks : " The statement in the 
Latin inscription that it was endowed as a rectory before the 
year 900 does not appear to be supported by sufficient evidence, 
although the old spelling of the name Paul worth points to a 
Saxon origin." 

On the other hand, Miss Warrender (herself a descendant of 
the Homes of Polwarth, and able therefore to speak with 
authority), in her admirable and carefully-written work, 
Marchmont and the Homes of Polwarth, seems to have no 
doubts as to the antiquity of this church. She says : " Ten 
centuries have passed since the pious zeal of those far distant 
days dedicated a church here to St. Mungo, the Beloved Saint, 
the memory of whose miracles and blameless life was still fresh 
in the land." 



202 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Adam Hume, third son of Sir Patrick, the fourth 
Baron of Polwarth, was rector of the church at the 
time of the Reformation. 

The armorial bearings of the Hume family adorn 
the tower, while the crowned orange (Marchmont 
arms) surmounts the eastern gable. 

The Marchmont family proved liberal benefactors 
in the repairing and furnishing the church. For 
the new tower, which was erected in 1703, a 
handsome bell was given by Lady Marchmont, and 
inscribed thus : 

" Given to the Kirk of Polwarth by Lady Grizel Kar Countess 
of Marchmont, 1697. R.M. Fecit Edr. 1717." 

This benefactress seems to have gifted the bell 
twenty years before it was made. 

There is a quaint, old-fashioned look about the 
building which lends a peculiar charm to a place 
already hallowed by associations that have made 
Polwarth to be ever memorable in other than a 
merely ecclesiastical sense. The old vault beneath 
the church is that in which Sir Patrick Hume lay 
concealed for over a month. He suffered thus on 
account of his. religious convictions. His wife, 
Lady Polwarth, and his daughter Grisell, then a 
girl of eighteen, alone knew where he was hidden. 
With the aid of another, the house carpenter, 
whom they admitted into their confidence, they 
conveyed into the vault during night a bed and 
bedclothes. The bed is still preserved at March 
mont, and bears the date I860.* To-day as then 

* The story of Sir Patrick s experiences is thus graphically 



POLWARTH. 203 

the vault is lit by a faint glimmering light from the 
grating high up in the eastern end, through which 
those outside, by stooping down on the grass, may 
distinguish when their eyes become accustomed 
to the dusky gloom four coffins, once richly gilt 



told by a descendant of his own : " For a month (so Lady 
Murray, Lady Grisell Baillie s daughter, relates in her Memoirs, 
from which most of these particulars are gathered) Sir Patrick 
lived in this dismal hiding-place. The only light that reached 
him was through the narrow slit at the end of the vault, as it 
was too great a risk to have any artificial light inside. Reading 
was impossible ; but he got through the long hours by repeating 
to himself Buchanan s version of the Psalms, which he knew by 
heart, and which he remembered to his dying day. Every night 
his daughter Grisell came by stealth, carrying him food and 
drink, and enlivening his solitude with the home news, stories 
of his children, their sayings and doings, and anything she could 
think of to cheer and amuse him. The first glimmerings of 
dawn sent her hurrying homewards, fearful of being surprised 
by one of the parties of soldiers that were scouring the country 
in search of her father. Her dread of this overcame her natural 
fear of crossing the churchyard after dark. The first night that 
she went there she was terrified by the barking of the minister s 
dogs (the manse then stood much nearer the church than it does 
now), and feared they might give the alarm ; but her mother 
next morning sent for the minister, and, under pretence of a mad 
dog being loose in the country, induced him to destroy them. 
The little lantern that she carried still exists, of very rude make, 
three-sided, and with hinges of roughly-tanned cow-hide. For 
fear of exciting the suspicions of the servants, she had to convey 
part of her own dinner off her plate into her lap, in order to 
secure food for her father ; and it was on one of these occasions 
that her little brother Sandy (afterwards the second Lord 
Marchmont) turned to Lady Polwarth in consternation and 
complained, Mother, will ye look at Grisell ? while we have 
been eating our broth, she has eaten up the whole sheep s head ! 
When Sir Patrick heard of this ho was greatly amused, and 
desired that Sandy should have his share next time." 
Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 



204 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

and decorated, now with tarnished plates and nails, 
and mouldering velvet palls.* 

Above the two old doorways on the front wall 
of the church are engraved verses taken from the 
Bible. On the south-east wall is an inscription in 
memory of Adam Hume, the first Protestant 
minister (1567 to 1593). There are two other 
memorial stones built into the outer wall, also in 
memory of former ministers : one to Alexander 
Cass, who died in the year 1651, the other to 
George Holiwell, who is quaintly described as 
"pedagogue" to Patrick, Earl of Marchmont, and 
whose father was a periwig-maker in Duns, died 
1704. 

In old days a bell used to be carried in the 
funeral processions at Polwarth, and rung in front 
of the coffin to frighten away the evil spirits. The 
bell still exists, but is at present in possession of 
the family of the late minister. A good many 
years ago, the basin of the old font was discovered 
hidden away at the back of the church. It is now 
placed on a graduated circular base on the grass 
close to the west door, and is a rude, circular, 
sandstone basin without carving or ornament of 
any kind, and apparently of early date. The 
external diameter is 28 inches, and the height 
20J inches, the depth of the bowl being 14 inches, 
with a perforation at the bottom.f 

The interior of the church is, like the exterior, 
exceedingly quaint and old-fashioned, and bears 



Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 
Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 



POLWARTH. 205 

the marks of antiquity on the walls and roof. The 
old hangings which still adorn the pulpit now 
covered over with a cloth of more modern and less 
artistic kind were embroidered in a most elaborate 
arabasque pattern by Lady Grisell Baillie. On one 
of the walls is a marble slab, which records that 
Hugh, Earl of Marchmont, raised this monument to 
the eternal memory of the most obedient and 
incomparable of wives. The inscription, which is 
in Latin, runs thus : 



" MEMORISE 

ANN^E WESTERN, 

HUGO COMES DE MARCHMONT, 

CONJUGI INCOMPARABILI 

OBSEQUENTISSIM.E 

ET OPLIM.E DE SE MERITS 

POSUIT 

EJUSQUE CORPUS IN ARCA 
HlC CONDIDIT." 

The communion plate consists of two silver 
cups, engraved : 

" These cups are given to the kirk of Poluarth by Lady Jean 
Hume, Lady Poluarth." 

The churchyard surrounds the church, and 
contains some very old stones ; but many of these 
have their inscriptions so weathered and effaced as 
to be quite illegible. 

The following lines appear on a large stone : 

" Beneath this stone the hand of death fast binds 
A form once active learned generous and kind 
Whose liberal soul to all men did extend 
A friend to all : all men to him a friend." 



206 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

On a small stone are these words : 

"Margret Milton spows to Thomas Stevnson who dyed 
janwary the 12 1696 her age ..." 

The following appears on a very small, curiously 
shaped stone : 

" 1699 

Remember man as thou gost by 
As thou art nou so once was I 
As I am nou so most ye be 
Remember man tht ye most die." 

A small stone is inscribed thus : 

" Here leys Margret Wait daughter to James Wait who died 
y 4th of Oct 1734 & in the 27 of her age." 

Another small stone, with ornamental margin, 
and bearing a cherub on the top, has these words 
on one side : 

" Here lyes Jean Greig Spouse to Patrick Christie who died 
in June 1690." 

On the other side : 

"PC I G 
Memento Mori." 

Another very small stone is thus inscribed : 

"Hir lyeth cris Tier Ridpath who died 1710 29 of 
Septemb? " 

The following is a list of the ministers of 
Polwarth since 1567 : 



POLWARTH. 207 

Adam Humo 1567 to 1593. 

Alexander Gaittis, M. A. 1593 to 1603. 

Alexander Cass or Case, M. A.* 1604 to 1651 

David Robertson, M. A. 1652 to 1663. 

George Holiwell, M. A. 1664 to 1704. 

Archibald Borthuik, M. A. 1709 to 1727. 

John Hume 1727 to 1734. 

William Home 1735 to 1758. 

Alexander Hume 1758 to 1768. 

Robert Home 1768 to 1838. 

Walter Home (assis. and succ.) 1823 to 1881. 

Charles James Watt, M.A. (present incumbent) 1882. 



* Cass was a member of the General Assembly in 1638, and 
being first in the roll gave his vote with some pleasant or witty 
remark on the grave and solemn questions which occupied their 
deliberations, for which he was thus lampooned at the time : 

" From the most stupid senseles asse, 
That ever brayed, my cousin Casse ; 
He is the Assembly s voyce, and so 
The Assembly is his echo. 
The fool speaks first, and all the rest 
To say the same are ready prest." 

Scott s Fasti Ecclesim Scotkance. 



208 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



S w i n t o n. 

THE church of Swiriton is very ancient. The 
present parish of that name is composed of the two 
previously independent parishes of Swinton and 
Simprin. These were united in 1761, when the 
latter ceased to exist. In the year 1098, when 
Coldingham was founded, King Edgar dedicated 
the church of Swinton, and consigned to the monks 
of that monastery upon the altar " Villam totam 
Swinton cum divisis, sicut Liulf habuit." This 
grant of Edgar was confirmed by his successor 
and by Bishop Robert in 1150, in presence of his 
Synod at Berwick. The church remained in the 
possession of Coldingham till the Reformation. 

In 1296 William de Swinton, the vicar of Swinton, 
swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick. 

William Bartrem, a person ot some note, was 
" Vicar of Swynton " in 1455, and received con 
siderable possessions from the then proprietor, John 
of Swinton.* 



* The deed of acknowledgment from the vicar s hand is an 
interesting document, dated 16th June, 1455, and runs thus : 

" Till all and sindry qwhais knawlage thir present lettres sal 
cum, Wilzem Bartrem, perpetuale wicare of the parroche kyrk 
of Swynton, gretyng in God aylestande : Yhoure vniuersite mot 
wit that the xvj day of the moneth of Ounij, the zher of God a 
thousand foure hundredth fifty and fywe zheris, in the presens of 
honorable men, that is to say, Alexander of Cockburn of Lang- 
toun, Adam of Nesbit of that ilke, Robert of Blakater of that 



SWINTON. 209 

The original edifice was replaced in 1593 by a 
rude building similar in style to those which pre 
vailed during that period. Considerable portions of 
this building, the foundations included, still remain, 
although the greater part was replaced by another 
in 1792. The old fabric (the building of 1593) was 
taken down on account of an apprehension that it 
was in a ruinous and dangerous state, whereas, on 
setting about pulling it down, it appeared to be un 
commonly strong, and might have stood for ages.* 
An old stone, built into the east gable of the 
church, bears the Swinton arms, with initials and 
date, thus : 

"S 

A S 

M H 

16 35," 



ilke, Thomas Dyksoun of Marsyntoun and Jhon Dyksoun his 
brother, and diuerse vtheris, at the request and counsale of 
thaime, an honorable man, Jhon of Swinton of that ilke, gafe to 
me for all the dayis and tym of my life, all and hale his medow 
lande, lyande betuix the fwrsene lande pertenyng to me be 
resoun of the kirk lande of the said wicarage, ande the water of 
Lete fra the estende of my sade fursen lande, lyand of southhalf 
the water of Lete, to the westend of the fursen lande of the 
samyn, for myn orgsoun alanerly, dayly to be maid for all the 
dayis of my life, for the saide Jhon of Swyntoun of that ilke, his 
wif, his barnys, thare antecessouris ; the quhilk medow he 
promittit and sufferit me till occupy be wertu of his gift of the 
samyn to me for my liftyme, for myn orisoun to be maid dayly 
as said is, and be nane other resoun : and this till all and sindry 
to qwham it afferis or may affere in tyme to cum I mak it knawyn 
be thir present lettres : In witnes of the qwhilk thing I have 
hunge to my seil at Swyntoun, day of the moneth and yhere 
before wrytyn." Tht Swintona of that Ilk and their Cadets. 

Old Statistical Account. Mr. Ferguson having carefully 
examined the building, is of opinion that the lower portions of 
the east, south, and west walls are original. 





210 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

signifying Sir Alexander Swinton and (dame) 
Margaret Home. A mural tablet on the north wall, 
with a similar device, but more rudely carved, may 
be supposed to mark their graves. The following 
dates appear above the east and west windows 
respectively : " A.D. 1796; A.D. 1800." These 
doubtless refer to minor additions and repairs. 

In 1782 a handsome aisle was built to the north 
side. This was executed at the expense of " a 
party of the fewars of Swinton," and in a great 
measure at their own expense. It is called " The 
Feurs Aisle," and on the interior wall is inscribed the 
names of the "party" referred to, numbering 18. 

Many generations of the ancient Swinton family 
lie buried within the walls of the church. A stone 
figure of Sir Alan de Swinton, the fifth baron of 
that family, lies in an arched open niche on the 
south wall to the right of the pulpit : under rudely- 
sculptured figures of a boar and three boars heads 
(the proper charges of the family, though here 
singularly marshalled) is the inscription : 

" Hie . lacet . Alanvs . Svintonvs . Miles . de . eodem." 

Below is a full-length figure of the knight, with 
his arms bent upwards from the elbows, and clasp 
ing what resembles a book. There is no date, but 
it is well known that this Sir Alan died about the 
year 1200. Some authorities maintain that what 
he holds in his hands is a stone, and that, by imme 
morial tradition, this is said to allude to a large clue 
of yarn, by the dexterous use of which in one hand, 
while he used his sword with the other, he dis 
patched a great wild boar in that field in Swinton 



SWINTON. 211 

Hill which, from that event, still retains the name 
of " Allan s Cairn."* A vault in front of the monu 
ment, and under the floor of the church, having 
been opened some years ago, was found to contain 
a coffin and three skulls ; one of these, which was 
of unusual dimensions, was supposed to be that of 
Sir Alan. 

The bell is old, and bears this inscription : 

" MARIA EST NOMEN MEVM." 

Following this are four peculiarly-shaped characters, 
which were probably originally intended to repre 
sent a date. They have been submitted to a 
London expert to decipher, but without success. 

The churchyard contains nothing very remarkable, 
the inscriptions on the older stones being quite 
illegible. 

These words are inscribed on the bevelled edges 
of a large horizontal stone : 

" Here lyes Will Veatch son to Mr. Hen Veatch and Martha 
Gardiner who died Maye the 12 1726 His age 1 year." 

SiMPRiN. This church existed in the time of 
David I. (1124-1153), when " Hye de Simpring" 
possessed the manor of Simprin and the advowson 
of its church. The same proprietor, during Malcolm 
IV. s reign (1153-1165), granted to the monks of 
Kelso the church of Simprin, with a toft and some 
lands.f It was dedicated by Bishop Bernham in 
1247. 



* The Swintons of that Ilk and their Cadets. Old Statistical 
A ccount. 

t Chalmers . Caledonia. 



212 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

Simprin church is honourably associated with 
the name of Thomas Boston, author of The Four 
fold State: a man of deep piety arid superlative 
zeal in the cause of religion. He was minister of 
Simprin between 1699 and 1707. 

In 1761 Simprin ceased to be a separate parish, 
and was then annexed to Swinton. After this the 
church was allowed to go to ruin. 

It has been a very small building, consisting of a 
nave and chancel, the former 22 feet long by 13 
feet wide, and the latter 23 feet long by 16 feet 
wide. The east gable is still almost entire ; the 
north wall of the chancel remains, to the height of 
about 6 feet ; but all the other portions are nearly 
level with the ground. The only window now 
visible is a small round-headed one. in the centre 
of the east gable, measuring 2 feet 9 inches by 
1 foot 3 inches, bevelled outside, and widely 
splayed laterally, but flat-headed, within. There 
seem to have been two doorways, opening into 
the nave and chancel respectively, through the 
south wall ; and one of the stones of the east jamb 
of the chancel doorway, broadly chamfered on the 
outer edge, may still be seen. With such vague 
and imperfect details, it is impossible to pronounce 
with confidence upon the age of the building, but 
it can hardly be later than the thirteenth century.* 

The ruins, in the middle of the now-disused 
burial-ground, stand in a small plantation about a 
mile and a half to the east of Swinton. The place 
is in a sadly dilapidated condition, and the stones. 

* Mr. Ferguson. //^. Btr. Nat. Club, 1890. 



SWINTON. 213 

about a score or more in number, are lying about 
in a disorderly and uncared-for fashion a discredit 
to the community, and especially to those who are 
mainly responsible for such a state of things. 

There are several old and very interesting stones 
in the churchyard. 

A small, neatly-carved stone bears these words: 

" 1610. 

" Heir lyes under this ston the body of Willeam Cockbourn 
whos dayes was feu. his glass it was soon run. all that him 
knew their lov he wan who departed July 28." 

On another small stone : 

" Heiar layes the body of Magret Common who departed this 
lyfe the 19 day Iwlay 1719 hir age was 60." 

The following appears on a large horizontal 
stone, and refers to James Gibson, one of the 
ministers of Simprin : 

" Hie jacet M r Jacobus Gibson pernuper sacerdos ecclesiae 
Simprinensis qui obiit 2o Martii Anno Domini 1668." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Swinton since 1590: 

Robert Hislop 1590 to 1595. 

Andrew Arbuthnot 1595 to 1632. 

Walter Swintoun, M. A. 1632 to 1646. 

Edward Jameson, M.A.* 1647 to 1661. 

Patrick Suintoune, M. A. 1668 to 1685. 

Edward Jameson, M.A. (reinstated) 1687 to 1691. 

Robert San delands 1691 to 1695. 

John Lithgow 1695 to 1711. 

Henry Veatch, M. A. 1712 to 1753. 



* A decree was passed against Jameson in 1671 for preaching 
at Conventicles, on which he was outlawed in 1676. 



214 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

George Cupplea 1754 to 1798. 

William Simson 1799 to 1804. 

James Baird 1804 to 1814. 

John Hunter 1814 to 1832. 

James Logan 1833 to 1868. 

Robert Home 1868 to 1877. 

Alexander Milne 1878 to 1884. 

James Gordon 1884 to 1891. 

D. D. F. Macdonald (present incumbent) 1892. 

SIMPRIN. 

Thomas Boner, M. A. 1606 to 1632. 

John Markmath, M. A. 1632 to 1638. 

Robert Meluill 1641 to 1654. 

James Gibson 1668 to 1668 (a few months). 

James Sanderson, M.A. 1668 to 1671. 

George Wilsone 1672 to 1683. 

James Adamson 1689 to 1689 (a few months). 

John Moir 1691 to . 

Thomas Boston, M. A. 1699 to 1707. 
James Allan 1707 to 1716. 
James Chrystie, M. A. 1717 to 1725. 
James Landereth, M. A. 1725 to 1756. 
John Jolly 1757 to 1761. 

There is a Free Church at Swinton, erected in 
1860 (second since the Disruption). It is a hand 
some building, with spire, in which there is a 
clock. It is oblong, 70 feet by 35, Gothic roof and 
windows ; capable of accommodating 520. The 
present minister is William Shearer, ordained in 
1870. 



WESTRUTHER. 215 



Westrutber. 

THIS parish is not ancient, having been formed 
about the middle of the seventeenth century (1649). 
Originally, it belonged to the parish of Home, from 
which, at the Reformation, it was disjoined, and 
annexed to the parish of Gordon. On account of 
the distance of the church of Gordon from the 
Westruther and Bassendean district, a minister was 
appointed in 1647 to the chapel of Bassendean. 
With a view to the convenience and better accom 
modation of the people in the northern part of this 
parish, a church was built at the village of West 
ruther in 1649, and it was then constituted a 
separate and independent parish. 

The original church of Westruther, therefore, 
cannot boast of any great antiquity. It is now 
disused, and the ruins, which stand in the centre 
of the burying ground, are rapidly falling to decay. 
Originally" it was a plain building, covered over 
with heather without and unceiled within, but much 
larger and more commodious than it now is. In 
1752 it underwent important alterations and repairs, 
besides being reduced to about one-third its original 
dimensions. It would seem that this was rendered 
necessary mainly by the large numbers who went 
over to the Secessionists at that time. The build 
ing, which is almost completely overgrown with ivy, 



216 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

has a picturesque, and even venerable, appear 
ance. 

There are several interesting stones in the 
churchyard. 

These words appear on one side of a medium- 
sized stone : 

" Here lies the remains of the dust of John Wright who died 
March th 28 1781 aged 27 years." 

On the other side : 

" Remember man as you pass by 
As you are now so once was I 
And as I am so shall you be 
Remember man that you must die 
But mind with all the day will come 
Whereon thy judge will doom 
You for the deeds that you have done 
He who loves God s abode and to combine 
With saints on earth shall one day with them shine. " 

On a small stone : 

"Here lys Gilbert . . . who died in Re . . cleugh 
the 27 of December the year 1701." 

On a small, very plain stone, in large letters : 
" Hear lyes James Redpath and his children 1 May 1699." 
On a small thick stone : 

"1674 G.F.I. Y." 

BASSENDEAN. When the original church of 
Bassendean was reared we have no means of deter 
mining. Probably it never was a place of much 
ecclesiastical importance, although it was served 
by a vicar long before the Reformation. It be- 



WESTRUTHER. 217 

longed to Coldingham, and was dedicated to the 
Virgin. 

A considerable portion of the old Roman Catholic 
chapel used as such prior to the Reformation is 
still in existence. Its remains, with those of the 
churchyard, occupy a grassy knoll three miles to 
the south of Westruther, and about a mile from 
the village of Houndslow. It has been a plain 
rectangular structure, 54^ feet long by about 20 
feet wide externally. The walls, which are 3 feet 
thick, remain to the height of about 11 feet, but 
both gables are wanting. Outside, the north-east 
and west walls are without any decorative details ; 
the south wall is pierced by a doorway about 16 feet 
from its western extremity, and by two square- 
headed windows in its eastern portion, about 11^ 
feet apart. The doorway is a plain, bevel-edged 
opening, 6 feet high by 3 feet 3 inches wide ; the 
windows are more elaborately treated, having 
widely counter-splayed jambs which present ex 
ternally a double splay, the outer plain, the inner, 
which is also the narrower of the two, fluted ; and 
internally a succession of plain and moulded 
chamfer orders, with an edge-roll flanked by two 
hollows. The lights have been placed near the 
centre of the wall. The westermost window is 
3^ feet high by 1 foot 8 inches wide, and is of one 
light only ; the other window has been divided into 
two lights by a monial, now broken away. Judging 
from the mouldings, the windows seem to have been 
insertions of Second-Pointed date ; and they have 
evidently been again altered and somewhat con 
tracted in dimensions at a still more recent period, 



218 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

the moulded jambs being partly concealed on the 
inside by rough masonry.* 

It is not possible to ascertain the age of this 
building. There are several features which point 
to its being of pre-Reformation date.f In the south 
wall there is a small rectangular niche or recess, 
which Mr. Ferguson very properly suggests may 
have been a receptacle for a holy water-stoup. In 
other parts of the interior wall there are an ambery 
and a niche, which the same authority suggests 
may have contained a piscina. The mutilated 
remains of the baptismal font lie amongst some 
loose stones arid rubbish. It is a very plain speci 
men, broken in two pieces, with the usual perfora 
tion in the bottom. An old sepulchral slab is 
utilised to form the lintel of a window, and has 
sculptured upon it a sword, and a star within a 
circle. Another similar stone bears a Maltese cross, 
enclosed in a circle, and a pair of shears below. A 
plain stone, standing against the interior wall, is 
inscribed, thus : 



* Mr. Ferguson. Hist. Ber. Nat. Club, 1890. 

t Dr. Hardy is of opinion that the ruin, as above described, is 
not a pre-Reformation structure. He describes it as "a mean 
post-Reformation structure. Before the front door of Bassen- 
dean," Dr. Hardy continues, " there is a great sandstone slab, 
closely resembling others in Gordon churchyard, derived from 
Greenlaw quarry. This tombstone was removed by a former 
tenant from Bassendean churchyard. The popular notion is 
that it commemorates a General Leslie, who fell while fighting 
against Cromwell. This is unlikely. Most of the other grave 
stones were used in building farm cottages some years ago. 
The churchyard is now united to an adjoining grass field." 
Hist. Ber. Nat. Club. 



WESTRUTHER. 219 

D . M . M . I . D . 

A.D. E.G. B.C. 
1750." 

Another stone bears 

" 1763 July." 

There is the faint outline of a wall which appar 
ently has enclosed the churchyard. Two or three 
small fragments are all that now remain, and these 
are so mutilated that it is with great difficulty we 
are able at all to discover any evidence of their 
sacred function. 

SPOTTISWOOD lies about two miles south-west of 
Westruther. Here, during the reign of David II. 
(1329-1370), John de Spottiswoode built a chapel, 
called Whitechapel, which was subordinate to the 
church of Hume.* The ruins of this chapel were 
entirely swept away when the ground was cleared 
for building the present offices of Spottiswood, 
about the beginning of the present century .f The 
only relic still preserved is the old baptismal font. 

At WEDDERLEY, a mile to the north of West 
ruther, there was formerly a chapel, also subordi 
nate to Home. In the reign of William the Lion 
(1165-1214) Gilbert, son of Adam of Home, gave 
to the monks of Kelso the chapel of Wedderley, 
with ten acres of land, with pasture for sheep and 
cattle.t Of this chapel nothing now remains. A 



* Chalmers Caledonia. 

t New Statistical Account. 

J Chalmers Caledonia. Chartulary of Kelso. 



220 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

ruined vault connected with it was in existence in 
1834, and is still remembered by some of the older 
inhabitants of the district. 

The present church of Westruther, which stands 
within a few yards of the old church already 
referred to, is quite modern, having been erected 
about fifty years ago. It is a neat, substantial 
edifice, presenting, however, no features of special 
interest. 

There is a communion cup belonging to West 
ruther inscribed : 

" CALIX EUCHARISTICUS ECCLESI^ PABOCHIALIS WESTRUTHER - 
ENSIS. A.D. 1718." 

The following is a list of the ministers that have 
been in Westruther since 1574 : 

Ninian Borthwick 1574 to . 

Thomas Storie 1597 to . 

John Vetche, M. A. 1648 to 1662. 

16 to . 

John Vetche, M. A.* (reinstated) 1680 to 1680 (a few months). 

George Wilsone 1683 to 1690. 

John Vetche, M.A. (again reinstated) 1690 to 1702. 

Walter Scott, M.A. -1704 to 1737. 

Francis Scott 1738 to 1781. 

William Shiels, M.A. 1782 to 1813. 



* Vetche was summoned before the Privy Council, 5th Oct., 
1680, and, not appearing, was denounced and put to the horn. 
He was subsequently taken, and kept close prisoner at Edin 
burgh, under great privations, being neither allowed fire nor 
candle, nor could his wife have access to speak to him except in 
presence of witnesses, all on account of his return without a 
licence. He was deprived for not taking the test. When 
obliged to leave, he pointed out to his successor a peat stack, 
requesting him to leave one similar to him should he return 
again. Scott s Fasti Ecdesice Scoticance. 



WESTRUTHER. 221 

John Shiels 1813 to 1819. 

John Birrell, M. A. 1819 to 1825. 

William Fleming 1826 to 1829. 

Robert Jamieson 1830 to 1837. 

Walter Wood, M. A.* 1838 to 1843. 

Henry Taylor, D.D. 1844 to 1896. 

John Muirhead, B.D. (present incumbent) 1896. 

The Free Church in this parish is a beautiful and 
durable edifice, erected in 1854 (being the second 
church since the Disruption). The present minister 
is Robert Arthur, M.A., settled in 1888. 



* Wood was one of those who left the Established Church at 
the Disruption. 



222 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 



Wbitsome. 

WHITSOME is made up of the two ancient parishes 
of Whitsome and Hilton. In 1735 they were 
united, and the latter ceased to have a separate 
parochial existence. We are not able to trace the 
existence of the church of Whitsome further back 
than 1296, when Rauf de Hawden, parson of the 
church of Whitsome, along with other " reverend 
traitors," swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick. 
Doubtless it existed considerably prior to this, 
though it does not appear in the list of churches 
dedicated by Bishop de Bernham in the middle of 
the 13th century. Whitsome appears to have been 
a rectory up till the Reformation. 

There are now no remains of the old church of 
Whitsome, which stood in the centre of the 
churchyard still in use. The writer of the " Old 
Statistical Account" (about the latter end of last 
century) says : " The church was in my remem 
brance a miserable thatched building, which, 
though now slated, is still very ill seated, narrow, 
and incommodious." 

The famous Boston on one occasion officiated in 
this old church, then thatched ; and such a multitude 
of people flocked from all quarters that many, in 
their eagerness to hear him, mounted the roof of 



WHITSOME. 223 

the humble edifice, tore off portions of the straw, 
and thus contrived to gratify both eye and ear. 

The present church is situated about 200 paces 
from the churchyard, and was built in 1803. It is 
small and unpretentious in style, but comfortable 
inside. 

The communion plate consists of two silver cups, 
engraved : 

" Gifted by A. A. Countes of Home to the Kirk of Whitsome 
1704." 

They bear also the Home arms. 

Some old and very interesting stones appear in 
the churchyard, which is situated on an elevated 
position overlooking a fine country, and commanding 
an extensive view in almost all directions. 

On a small plain stone : 

"I H 
1690." 

On a long narrow stone : 

" Here Jyes the body of lohn Dickson uho deported this life 
the 26 of Nouembcr 1724 his age 74. Also Margret Loden his 
spous who Died 1740 aged 70." 

On a very small stone : 

" Heire lyeth the corp of Gorg Aid uho left this life 2 of lun 
. . . 93." 

(The above date was probably 1693.) 
A similar stone bears : 

" HERE LYES ISBEL Dickson spowes to JOHN Shiel who 
lived in Stowood who died March the 24 1755 aged 60 years." 



224 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

A large, plain stone, with the figure of a sword 
rudely carved on its surface, has these initials and 
dates : 

"W P 1664 G P 1620 G A 1650." 

On a large stone with inscription very much 
defaced : 

"Dauid Innerwick 24 ... 1618 (?). Here lyeth the 
corps of William Innerwick son to Georg Innerwick som time 
portioner of Whitsome who departed this life the 7 day of March 
in the yeare of God 1628 and of his age the 18 years." 

HlLTON. Of this church we have no mention 
earlier than 1243. It was then dedicated by 
Bishop de Bernham, and was of old a rectory. In 
1296 David, the parson of Hilton, swore fealty to 
Edward I. at Berwick. In the year 1464 there 
seems to have been a suit depending at the court 
of Rome about the church of Hilton. 

Only a small fragment of the old church fabric is 
now standing, which, together with some low 
mounds, almost entirely overgrown with grass, 
indicates the position and extent of the building, 
which has been of the usual long and narrow type. 
The site is a grassy knowe, close to the farm 
steading of Hilton, and about a mile to the east of 
Whitsome. 

Hilton bell, which had been rung by the hand, is 
still preserved. It has inscribed on the rim in 
legible characters : " For Hiltoun, 1718." 

In the churchyard there are only about a score 
of tombstones, scattered about promiscuously. 
Some of these are gradually sinking below the 



WHITSOME. 225 

ground, while others are being broken into 
fragments. The whole place is in a most shameful 
and neglected condition, utterly unworthy of its 
sacred office and traditions. 

On a small stone are these words : 

"Here lyeth the body of Thomas Purves son to Willeam 
Purves in Crosrige who died Janr the 1 1729 His age 17." 

A large horizontal stone bears several dates 
almost illegible, amongst others 1645. 
On a very large, plain stone : 

" Here lyes the Body of Mr Daniel Douglas, minister of the 
Gospel at Hiltoune who departed this life the 24th J u iy anno 
1705 his age 86. 

" Renewed by Subscription in 1836." 
On a very small stone : 

"G. A. 1661 A. G. 1666 

A. A. 1664." 

On a similar stone : 

"G. M. 1668 . . . 1666." 

On another small stone : 

11 A M 1642." 
On a medium-sized stone : 

" Heare lays the body of Will Mason who died 3 1771 aged 
2 years." 

A small stone bears these words : 

" Here lye the corpse of Margrat Qarie who departed xxx of 
October 1696." 

On a similar stone : 

" Heir lyeth James Swine 1677." 
P 



226 BERWICKSHIRE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

The following inscription appeared on a stone 
here, but it is now quite illegible : 

" Heire lyes Christian Forret daughter of James Forret of 
that Ilk in Fyffe, her mother being daughter to the laird of 
Lethiday in Angus, married William Somervil of Moshat 
Girfilman in Clidisdail, with whom she lived a year and being 
delivered of one daughter, christianly and comfortably past from 
her pilgrimage to her home and husband Christ Junii 18, 1645. 
What Graces, gifts, parts, perfections rare, 
Among all other women scattered are, 
Unitely, fully, cleirly shined in that star." 

The following is a list of the ministers of Hilton 
from 1585 till the time of its union with Whitsome 
in 1735 : 

Andrew Winchester 1585 to 1598. 

James Home 1609 to . 

Daniel Douglas, M. A. 1650 to 1662. 

George Hollwell, M. A. 1662 to 1664. 

John Hepburne, M. A. 1664 to 1673. 

William Methven, M. A. 1675 to 1682. 

Simon Wyld 1683 to 1684. 

John Home 1689 to 1690. 

Daniel Douglas, M.A.* (reinstated) 1690 to 1705. 



* Douglas was minister when the tide of persecution ran 
high. There is a popular tradition to the effect that one day, 
during public worship, an individual of the dominant party, 
offended at certain words which fell from the preacher, laid 
violent hands upon him, and dragged him from the pulpit. A 
slight effusion of blood was the consequence, on which the 
maltreated pastor predicted, in the hearing of the congregation, 
that the cowardly assailant s blood would yet stain the floor of 
the sanctuary, and be licked by dogs. It happened soon after 
that the person from whom Mr. Douglas suffered such ill-usage 
received a mortal wound from an enemy. A crowd of attendants 
proceeded homewards with the corpse, but on their way they 
were overtaken by a storm, which forced them to the nearest 



WHITSOME. 227 

William Wilsono 1707 to 1731. 
George Hume 1732 to 1736. 

The following is a list of the ministers of 
Whitsome since 1585. 

Thomas Ogilvy 1585 to . 

Robert Hislope- -1588 to 1607. 

Alexander Kinneir, M. A. 1608 to 1654. 

Andrew Patersone, M. A. 1658 to 1667. 

George Davidson, M. A. 1668 to 1685. 

Adam Waddel, M.A. 1685 to 1713. 

John Vetch 1715 to 1722. 

James Golden 1723 to 1754. 

John Waugh 1755 to 1800. 

George Drummond 1800 to 1820. 

Adam Landela 1821 to 1838. 

Robert Cowe, M. A.* 1839 to 1843. 

John Robertson 1843 to 1866. 

John Alexander Robertson (present incumbent,) 1866. 



shelter the kirk of Hilton. They had not long remained 
beneath the sacred roof when the dead man s wound broke out 
afresh, dripped through the bandages, and was actually lapped 
by some hounds that had accompanied the procession. For the 
truth of the tradition we do not vouch. After the Revolution, 
previously to which he had taken refuge in Holland, Mr Douglas 
returned to Hilton, and there continued to exercise the pastoral 
function till his decease at the age of 86. New Statistical 
A ccount. 

Cowe was one of those who left the Established Church at 
the Disruption. 



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